TABLE 2

Demographic and injury characteristics for the sample groupsa

CharacteristicRc+Rc–P
n109240
Age, years13.22 (3.23)13.95 (2.75).03
Male87 (80)147 (61).001
White58 (53)165 (69).001
Hispanic7 (10)18 (12).60
Maternal years of education15.93 (2.68)16.12 (2.46).58
Anxiety3 (3)19 (8).06
Depression1 (<1)8 (3).13
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder7 (6)24 (10).20
Preinjury history of learning disability6 (6)11 (5).77
Preinjury academic supports (504/IEPb)10 (9)32 (13).23
Enrolled in public school67 (61)158 (66).44
Level of schooling.14
 Elementary (grades K through 5)29 (27)42 (18)
 Middle School (grades 6 through 8)30 (28)78 (32)
 High School (grades 9 through 12)50 (45)120 (50)
Preinjury school performance.16
 Below average4 (4)5 (2)
 Above average55 (50)144 (60)
Preinjury history of migraine1 (<1)6 (3).31
Preinjury history of nonmigraine headache9 (8)27 (11).43
History of previous concussion34 (31)85 (35).37
Injury cause: sport-related concussion73 (68)172 (72).38
Injury characteristics
 Loss of consciousness13 (12)25 (11).71
 No recall of impact24 (22)71 (30).15
 Retrograde amnesia15 (14)38 (16).64
 Anterograde amnesia24 (22)54 (23).95
Days since injury16.83 (5.61)16.42 (5.86).54
  • Values are expressed as mean (SD) or n (%).

  • a Preinjury demographic, diagnostic, and academic history were reported by parents at the time of the evaluation.

  • b Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act; IEP, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.