TABLE 3

Likelihood of Moderate/High SDQ Scores, Developmental Diagnoses, and Current Receipt of Special Needs Services at 6 Years of Age by Maternal Prepregnancy BMI, Y6FU Study, 2012

Crude OR (95% CI)OR Adjusted for Confounders (95% CI)aOR Adjusted for Confounders and Mediators (95% CI)b
SDQ scoresc
Emotional symptoms
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight1.67 (0.67–4.14)1.42 (0.56–3.62)1.21 (0.45–3.22)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight1.16 (0.70–1.92)1.21 (0.72–2.03)1.18 (0.69–2.02)
  Obese I1.36 (0.74–2.48)1.45 (0.79–2.69)1.48 (0.77–2.81)
  Obese II/III2.20d (1.28–3.78)2.24d (1.27–3.98)1.94d (1.05–3.58)
Conduct problems
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight0.83 (0.32–2.17)0.71 (0.27–1.89)0.68 (0.25–1.84)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight1.17 (0.77–1.77)1.08 (0.71–1.66)1.06 (0.68–1.65)
  Obese I1.52 (0.94–2.47)1.47 (0.89–2.42)1.34 (0.80–2.25)
  Obese II/III1.71d (1.05–2.77)1.47 (0.88–2.45)1.19 (0.69–2.04)
Hyperactivity
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight0.57 (0.22–1.47)0.46 (0.17–1.22)0.44 (0.16–1.18)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight1.05 (0.73–1.52)1.06 (0.72–1.55)1.09 (0.73–1.61)
  Obese I1.09 (0.68–1.73)1.14 (0.71–1.84)1.13 (0.69–1.85)
  Obese II/III1.32 (0.84–2.08)1.31 (0.81–2.12)1.15 (0.69–1.90)
Peer problems
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight1.20 (0.52–2.77)1.04 (0.44–2.47)0.97 (0.40–2.35)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight1.09 (0.72–1.65)1.17 (0.76–1.80)1.16 (0.75–1.81)
  Obese I0.99 (0.58–1.71)1.04 (0.60–1.82)1.01 (0.57–1.78)
  Obese II/III1.90d (1.19–3.04)2.07d (1.26–3.40)1.83d (1.09–3.09)
Prosocial behavior
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight0.60 (0.14–2.56)0.58 (0.13–2.57)0.50 (0.11–2.26)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight1.20 (0.71–2.05)1.11 (0.64–1.93)1.12 (0.63–1.99)
  Obese I0.46 (0.18–1.20)0.47 (0.18–1.22)0.47 (0.18–1.26)
  Obese II/III1.35 (0.70–2.62)1.33 (0.66–2.67)1.08 (0.51–2.25)
Total SDQ score
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight0.43 (0.10–1.83)0.30 (0.07–1.34)0.27 (0.06–1.21)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight0.91 (0.55–1.50)0.91 (0.54–1.53)0.90 (0.52–1.54)
  Obese I1.07 (0.59–1.97)1.09 (0.58–2.04)1.06 (0.56–2.03)
  Obese II/III2.16d (1.29–3.61)2.17d (1.24–3.77)1.88d (1.04–3.39)
Child ever diagnosed with ADD/ADHDe
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight0.96 (0.12–7.54)0.51 (0.06–4.33)0.51 (0.06–4.53)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight1.83 (0.81–4.12)2.04 (0.88–4.75)1.83 (0.76–4.39)
  Obese I1.21 (0.39–3.80)1.18 (0.36–3.87)1.03 (0.31–3.48)
  Obese II/III3.62d (1.57–8.36)4.55d (1.80–11.46)3.76d (1.41–10.05)
Child ever diagnosed with autism/DDe
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight2.36 (0.50–11.07)2.34 (0.45–12.19)2.63 (0.48–14.48)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight1.08 (0.39–3.01)1.08 (0.38–3.08)1.11 (0.37–3.40)
  Obese IN/AN/AN/A
  Obese II/III2.70d (1.01–7.21)3.13d (1.10–8.94)3.21 (0.97–10.64)
Child ever diagnosed with depression or anxietye
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight1.66 (0.20–13.77)1.44 (0.16–12.80)1.37 (0.15–12.79)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight0.77 (0.20–3.00)0.81 (0.20–3.24)0.98 (0.24–4.03)
  Obese I0.51 (0.06–4.20)0.60 (0.07–4.96)0.73 (0.09–6.32)
  Obese II/III2.73 (0.86–8.73)3.08 (0.89–10.58)2.95 (0.78–11.12)
Child ever diagnosed with hearing problemse
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight0.60 (0.08–4.57)0.51 (0.06–3.99)0.51 (0.06–4.06)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight0.85 (0.38–1.90)0.89 (0.39–2.02)0.77 (0.33–1.79)
  Obese I1.75 (0.78–3.95)1.97 (0.86–4.51)1.85 (0.78–4.40)
  Obese II/III1.82 (0.81–4.11)2.00 (0.84–4.75)1.79 (0.73–4.41)
Current speech or language therapyf
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight1.48 (0.67–3.30)1.42 (0.63–3.24)1.38 (0.59–3.18)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight1.30 (0.87–1.95)1.20 (0.79–1.82)1.16 (0.76–1.78)
  Obese I0.75 (0.41–1.37)0.70 (0.38–1.29)0.67 (0.35–1.25)
  Obese II/III2.11d (1.32–3.37)1.93d (1.18–3.15)1.87d (1.12–3.15)
Current occupational or therapy for motor skillsf
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight1.29 (0.38–4.40)1.41 (0.40–4.97)1.38 (0.39–4.97)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight0.71 (0.35–1.46)0.66 (0.32–1.36)0.62 (0.29–1.31)
  Obese I0.39 (0.12–1.29)0.35 (0.10–1.19)0.31 (0.09–1.06)
  Obese II/III1.44 (0.68–3.04)1.35 (0.62–2.97)1.11 (0.48–2.55)
Current special help in school projectsf
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight0.91 (0.31–2.62)0.91 (0.31–2.68)0.88 (0.30–2.63)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight0.84 (0.51–1.39)0.78 (0.46–1.30)0.71 (0.42–1.20)
  Obese I1.16 (0.64–2.09)1.09 (0.60–2.00)0.91 (0.49–1.69)
  Obese II/III1.60 (0.92–2.79)1.50 (0.84–2.67)1.24 (0.68–2.27)
Current special services for vision or hearingf
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight2.89 (0.32–26.39)3.00 (0.31–29.28)3.38 (0.31–37.33)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight1.78 (0.44–7.18)2.20 (0.52–9.26)1.94 (0.42–8.91)
  Obese I1.79 (0.33–9.89)2.23 (0.39–12.65)1.63 (0.26–10.22)
  Obese II/III2.89 (0.64–13.07)3.98 (0.79–19.99)4.09 (0.71–23.45)
Current psychological servicesf
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight0.91 (0.21–3.96)0.65 (0.14–3.03)0.63 (0.14–2.93)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight0.99 (0.51–1.94)0.97 (0.49–1.93)1.04 (0.51–2.11)
  Obese I0.42 (0.12–1.40)0.43 (0.13–1.47)0.44 (0.13–1.51)
  Obese II/III2.25d (1.14–4.44)2.27d (1.09–4.73)2.24d (1.03–4.85)
Current support in classroom by assistantf
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  UnderweightN/AN/AN/A
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight0.88 (0.37–2.09)0.86 (0.35–2.07)0.86 (0.35–2.14)
  Obese I0.22 (0.03–1.66)0.22 (0.03–1.67)0.18 (0.02–1.44)
  Obese II/III1.45 (0.56–3.76)1.43 (0.51–4.02)1.34 (0.44–4.07)
Current other special servicesf
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  UnderweightN/AN/AN/A
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight0.59 (0.16–2.19)0.58 (0.15–2.21)0.66 (0.17–2.62)
  Obese I0.79 (0.76–3.70)0.81 (0.17–3.92)1.21 (0.23–6.37)
  Obese II/III1.71 (0.52–5.63)1.95 (0.56–6.77)2.48 (0.65–9.45)
Currently received any of thesef
 Maternal prepregnancy BMI
  Underweight1.37 (0.73–2.59)1.26 (0.65–2.42)1.21 (0.62–2.37)
  NormalReferenceReferenceReference
  Overweight0.95 (0.69–1.32)0.89 (0.64–1.24)0.86 (0.61–1.21)
  Obese I0.86 (0.56–1.32)0.82 (0.53–1.27)0.77 (0.49–1.20)
  Obese II/III2.07d (1.42–3.03)1.99d (1.33–2.97)1.88d (1.23–2.85)
  • CI, confidence interval.

  • a Adjusted for maternal age, maternal race or ethnicity, marital status, mother’s education, poverty-to-income ratio, smoking during third trimester, parity, child’s gender, child’s current BMI, and child’s enrichment. Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and other categories were combined as 1 group and compared with white for maternal race or ethnicity. Child’s enrichment was dichotomized as having received any (read aloud or special lessons) and having received none.

  • b Adjusted for aforementioned confounders plus birth weight, pregnancy weight gain, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding, and postpartum depression. Each category of composite breastfeeding was compared with those who never breastfed.

  • c These estimates are based on 1241 mother–child pairs with complete information on covariates to examine child’s SDQ scores.

  • d CI does not include 1.0.

  • e These estimates are based on 1311 mother–child pairs with complete information on covariates to examine child’s developmental diagnoses.

  • f These estimates are based on 1253 mother–child pairs with complete information on covariates to examine child’s current receipt of special needs services.