TABLE 1

Maternal and Child Characteristics by Maternal Prepregnancy BMI, IFPS II, United States, 2005–2007

Total (n = 1311),a%bUnderweight (n = 52),%bNormal (n = 600),%bOverweight (n = 333),%bObese Class I (n = 166),%bObese Class II/III (n = 160),%bP
Total4.045.825.412.612.2
Maternal characteristics
 Age, y.01
  18–2413.723.114.212.912.111.9
  25–2932.044.235.227.333.125.0
  30–3433.319.232.536.330.736.9
  ≥3521.113.518.223.424.126.3
 Race or ethnicity.25
  White87.482.786.088.690.488.8
  Black3.31.92.84.22.44.4
  Hispanic5.15.85.35.44.24.4
  Asian/Pacific Islander2.55.83.80.91.80.6
  Other1.73.92.00.91.21.9
 Marital status.11
  Married84.475.085.385.087.480.0
  Unmarried15.625.014.715.012.720.0
 Education.001
  High school or less15.921.213.214.118.725.6
  Some college36.736.534.538.139.838.8
  College graduate47.442.352.347.841.635.6
 Percentage of poverty level<.001
  <185%34.548.128.836.936.843.8
  ≥185%65.551.971.263.163.256.3
 Smoking during third trimester, no. cigarettes per day.03
  1+6.917.35.56.97.88.1
  093.182.794.593.192.291.9
 Parity.12
  Primiparous27.732.730.823.725.924.4
  Multiparous72.367.369.276.374.175.6
 Pregnancy wt gain<.001
  Inadequate19.926.921.212.614.533.8
  Adequate32.638.541.327.021.121.3
  More than adequate47.534.637.560.464.545.0
 Gestational diabetes<.001
  Yes7.60.05.06.611.518.1
  No85.494.289.086.875.975.6
  Don’t know or not sure7.05.86.06.612.76.3
 Breastfeeding<.001
  Never breastfed12.917.310.312.311.523.8
  Breastfed <6 mo35.930.833.736.442.238.8
  Breastfed ≥6 mo + exclusive <3 mo28.430.829.229.427.723.1
  Breastfed ≥6 mo + exclusive ≥3 mo22.821.226.821.918.714.4
 Possible postpartum depression.24
  Yes19.930.819.717.118.125.0
  No71.363.572.372.473.565.6
  Not specified8.85.88.010.58.49.4
Child characteristics
 Gender.90
  Male49.951.949.751.747.049.4
  Female50.148.150.348.453.050.6
 Birth weight<.001
  Small for gestational age5.111.54.85.73.64.4
  Appropriate for gestational age82.286.586.379.679.573.8
  Large for gestational age12.71.98.814.716.921.9
 Current BMI (reported by mother)<.001
  Very underweight/underweight9.823.111.77.27.86.3
  Average84.476.985.785.087.478.1
  Overweight/very overweight5.70.02.77.84.815.6
 Child enrichment
  None6.51.95.38.77.86.3.03
  Read aloud ≥3 times per week or received special lessons38.738.536.036.644.047.5
  Read aloud ≥3 times per week and received special lessons54.859.658.754.748.246.3
  • a This sample size represents mother–child pairs with complete information on covariates to examine child’s developmental diagnoses; final analytic sample sizes vary based on the type of developmental outcomes. Approximately 3% of mothers were missing information on marital status and education level, and 2.7% were missing information on pregnancy weight gain.

  • b Percentages may not add to 100 because of rounding.