TABLE 3

Associations Between Physical Punishment and Axis II Disorders

Psychiatric DisorderNo Physical Punishment or Child Maltreatment (n = 19 349; 94.1% [93.3–94.8])Physical Punishment Without Child Maltreatment (n = 1258; 5.9% [5.2–6.7])PAF (99.9% CI)Gender by Physical Punishment Interactions
Paranoid personality disorder
 n (%)532 (2.5)56 (3.4)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.45 (0.78–2.70)
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.39 (0.74–2.62)1.00 (0.29–3.48)
Schizoid personality disorder
 n (%)417 (1.9)53 (3.6)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.88 (1.02–3.46)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.80 (0.97–3.33)**1.39 (0.38–5.06)
Schizotypal personality disorder
 n (%)368 (1.7)49 (3.9)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.002.46 (1.32–4.57)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.002.31 (1.24–4.31)***7.2 (1.4–16.3)0.81 (0.22–2.97)
Any cluster A personality disorder
 n (%)1116 (5.3)127 (8.8)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.82 (1.18–2.81)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.74 (1.13–2.69)***4.2 (0.8–9.1)0.81 (0.34–1.92)
Antisocial personality disorder
 n (%)333 (1.9)46 (4.1)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.002.06 (1.06–3.98)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.98 (1.03–3.82)***5.5 (0.2–14.3)0.91 (0.16–5.09)
Borderline personality disorder
 n (%)543 (2.7)70 (4.7)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.97 (1.13–3.44)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.82 (1.04–3.20)***4.6 (0.2–11.5)1.23 (0.41–3.70)
Histrionic personality disorder
 n (%)207 (1.0)22 (1.7)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.89 (0.78–4.59)
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.83 (0.74–4.52)0.83 (0.12–5.78)
Narcissistic personality disorder
 n (%)789 (3.7)104 (7.3)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.91 (1.17–3.12)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.84 (1.13–3.00)***4.7 (0.8–10.6)1.28 (0.48–3.36)
Any cluster B personality disorder
 n (%)1520 (7.7)190 (13.9)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.94 (1.31–2.88)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.85 (1.25–2.74)***4.8 (1.5–9.3)1.08 (0.52–2.22)
Avoidant personality disorder
 n (%)262 (1.3)22 (1.8)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.58 (0.53–4.66)
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.53 (0.52–4.52)0.40 (0.06–2.73)
Obsessive compulsive personality disorder
 n (%)1108 (5.9)111 (9.3)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.63 (1.00–2.66)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.60 (0.98–2.61)**1.80 (0.82–3.92)
Any cluster C personality disordera
 n (%)1280 (6.7)120 (9.9)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.54 (0.96–2.47)**
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.51 (0.94–2.42)**1.61 (0.75–3.45)
  • All n values were unweighted, and all percentages were weighted. aOR-1, adjusted for gender, age, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, and household income; aOR-2, adjusted for age, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, household income, and any family history of dysfunction.

  • a Dependent personality disorder was included in the any cluster C personality disorder summary variable. However, it was not analyzed in relation to physical punishment individually due to a cell size <5.

  • ** P ≤ .01;

  • *** P ≤ .001.