TABLE 2

Drugs Associated With PRES of Potential Use During Transplantation

DrugsSource
Cytotoxic agents
 Antimetabolites
  GemcitabineBartynski (2)
  CytarabineBartynski (2)
  MethotrexateDicuonzo et al (59)
  FludarabineBeitinjaneh et al (31)
Monoclonal antibodies
 Rituximab (anti-CD20)Zito et al (60)
 Infliximab (anti-TNF-α)Zamvar et al (61)
 Alemtuzumab (anti-CD52)Cooksley et al (62)
Immunosuppressive agents
 CNIs
  CyclosporineBartynski et al (25)
  TacrolimusHammerstrom et al (63)
 mTOR inhibitors
  RapamicineQin et al (64)
  SirolimusMoskowitzet al (65); Bodkin and Eidelman (66)
 Purine analogs
  AzatioprineFacchini et al (67)
Antibiotics
 LinezolidNagel et al (68)
 CiprofloxacinAli (69)
Growth factors
 Granulocyte-stimulating factorStübgen (70)
 ErythropoietinDelanty et al (71)
Immunoglobulins
 Human immunoglobulinsBelmouaz et al (72)
 Antilymphocyte globulinGreaves et al (73)
Miscellaneous
 CorticosteroidsZama et al (32); McKinney et al (42)
 Intravenous contrast agentsMcKinney et al (42)
 CarbamazepineFuruta et al (74)
 EpinephrineGharabawy et al (75)
  • mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; TNF, tumor necrosis factor α.