TABLE 2

Associations Between Physical Punishment and Axis I Mental Disorders

Psychiatric DisordersNo Physical Punishment (n = 19 349; 94.1% [93.3–94.8])Physical Punishment (n = 1258; 5.9% [5.2–6.7])PAF (99.9% CI)Gender by Physical Punishment Interactions
Major depression
n (%)3259 (16.1)261 (19.8)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.48 (1.09–2.01)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.41 (1.03–1.92)***2.4 (0.2–5.1)1.28 (0.67–2.43)
Dysthymia
n (%)632 (3.0)60 (4.6)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.78 (0.95–3.34)**
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.70 (0.89–3.23)**0.95 (0.23–3.97)
Mania
n (%)569 (2.9)61 (5.3)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.002.08 (1.18–3.66)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.93 (1.07–3.48)***5.2 (0.4–12.8)0.85 (0.26–2.75)
Hypomania
n (%)573 (2.9)44 (3.2)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.24 (0.68–2.25)
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.23 (0.67–2.25)1.07 (0.29–3.93)
Any mood disorder
n (%)3840 (19.1)320 (24.4)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.56 (1.17–2.08)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.49 (1.11–2.00)***2.8 (0.6–5.6)1.15 (0.65–2.04)
Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia
n (%)1003 (5.2)80 (6.0)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.32 (0.78–2.22)
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.24 (0.74–2.10)1.65 (0.56–4.86)
Social phobia
n (%)952 (5.0)73 (5.5)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.20 (0.74–1.96)
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.13 (0.69–1.85)0.67 (0.24–1.82)
Specific phobia
n (%)2496 (12.3)199 (14.7)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.36 (1.00–1.85)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.31 (0.96–1.79)**0.97 (0.49–1.91)
General anxiety disorder
n (%)1015 (5.2)83 (7.0)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.58 (0.94–2.65)**
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.50 (0.89–2.51)**1.21 (0.37–3.90)
PTSD
n (%)805 (3.7)64 (4.1)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.22 (0.76–1.96)
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.17 (0.73–1.88)1.46 (0.49–4.32)
Any anxiety disordera
n (%)4477 (22.3)355 (26.7)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.41 (1.09–1.83)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.36 (1.05–1.77)***2.1 (0.3–4.3)1.08 (0.62–1.89)
Any alcohol abuse or dependence
n (%)5461 (30.2)515 (43.2)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.65 (1.25–2.17)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.59 (1.21–2.08)***3.4 (1.2–6.0)1.04 (0.60–1.79)
Any drug dependence or abuse
n (%)1359 (8.7)160 (12.9)
 aOR-1 (99.9% CI)1.001.61 (1.12–2.32)***
 aOR-2 (99.9% CI)1.001.53 (1.06–2.20)***3.0 (0.4–6.6)1.07 (0.46–2.48)
  • All n values were unweighted, and all percentages were weighted. aOR-1, adjusted for gender, age, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, and household income; aOR-2, adjusted for age, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, household income, and any family history of dysfunction; PTSD, posttraumatic stress disorder.

  • a Aoraphobia was included in the any anxiety disorder and any mental disorder summary variables. However, it was not analyzed in relation to physical punishment individually due to a cell size <5.

  • *** P ≤ .001;

  • ** P ≤ .01.