TABLE 1

Sociodemographic Profile of Respondents Without and With Physical Punishment

CharacteristicNo Physical Punishment (n = 19 349; 94.1% [93.7–94.5])Physical Punishment (n = 1258; 5.9% [5.5–6.3])Odds Ratio (99.9% CI)
Gender
 Male8110 (47.7)663 (59.4)1.00
 Female11 249 (52.3)595 (40.6)0.62 (0.50–0.79)***
Marital status
 Married/cohabitating10 739 (64.3)744 (69.0)1.00
 Widowed/divorced/separated4837 (17.7)281 (15.2)0.80 (0.61–1.05)**
 Never married3773 (18.0)233 (15.9)0.82 (0.59–1.14)
Race/ethnicity
 White11 712 (73.1)738 (72.1)1.00
 Black3432 (10.1)300 (14.7)1.47 (1.01–2.16)***
 American Indian/Alaska262 (1.8)14 (1.9)1.06 (0.34–3.35)
Native
 Asian/Native563 (4.4)12 (1.4)0.31 (0.13–0.74)***
 Hawaiian/Other Pacific
Islander
 Hispanic3380 (10.6)194 (10.0)0.95 (0.63–1.44)
Education
 Less than high school2820 (12.7)139 (8.8)1.00
 High school5334 (27.5)347 (29.0)1.53 (1.01–2.32)***
 Some college3989 (21.0)300 (23.1)1.59 (1.07–2.37)***
 Completed postsecondary degree7206 (38.8)472 (39.2)1.47 (0.99–2.17)**
Past year household income, $
 ≤19 9994228 (17.3)183 (11.4)1.00
 20 000–39 9994894 (23.7)299 (21.9)1.40 (0.96–2.05)**
 40 000–69 9994978 (27.1)352 (29.0)1.63 (1.10–2.42)***
  >70 0005249 (31.9)424 (37.7)1.79 (1.26–2.57)***
Any family history of dysfunction
 No16 257 (84.2)937 (75.6)1.00
 Yes3075 (15.9)320 (24.4)1.71 (1.28–2.29)***
Age, mean ± SE, y48.4 ± 0.2148.7 ± 0.691.00 (0.99–1.01)
  • Data are presented as n (%) or mean ± SE. All n values were unweighted, and all percentages were weighted.

  • *** P < .001;

  • ** P < .01.