TABLE 5

Overview of Primary Studies Included in the Meta-Analysis

Author, yearHall et al 20029Laborde et al 200714Mercer et al 201015Zobbi et al 201116Present Study
CountryUnited StatesFranceUnited StatesItalyFrance
Setting9 suburban hospitals9 hospitals3 urban hospitals2 birth centers8 hospitals
Enrolment periodFebruary–December 2000April–July 2005June 2004–May 2007July 2008–January 2009December 2005–February 2006
Study designProspectiveProspectiveProspectiveProspectiveProspective
No. participants10754881182386499
Maternal age, mean (SD), y29 (5.6)30 (4)25 (5.6)33 (4.3)30 (4)
Primiparous, n (%)454 (42.2)214 (43.9)NA222 (57.5)231 (46.3)
Gestational age, range, wk35–4237–4237–4236–4237–42
Caesarean delivery, n (%)279 (25.9)76 (15.6)329 (27.8)54 (14.0)77 (15.4)
First time to breastfeed after delivery, mean (SD), h2.2 (1.9)1.4 (1.9)5.6 (8.4)≤2 ha1.4 (2.1)
Infant’s age at discharge, mean (SD), h55 (16)109 (25)NA79 (17)110 (26)
BAS <8, n (%)370 (34.4)211 (43.2)939 (79.4)119/380 (31.3)188/424 (44.3)
Timing of breastfeeding status assessment, d7–10147–103014
Early breastfeeding cessation, n (%)114 (10.6)13 (2.6)173 (14.6)127/380 (33.4)22/424 (5.2)
AUC for the BAS (95% CI)0.73 (0.70 to 0.76)b0.73 (0.68 to 0.76)b0.70 (0.67 to 0.72)b0.74 (0.69 to 0.79)0.70 (0.65 to 0.74)
  • AUC, area under the curve; NA, not available from the authors.

  • a All newborns were breastfed within 2 h of delivery.

  • b AUC for BAS was computed along with 95% binomial CI on the basis of published data.