TABLE 2

Mother–Infant Pairs’ Baseline Characteristics (n = 499)

Characteristics
Maternal age, median (IQR), ya30 (27–33)
Single, n (%)a10 (2.0)
Unemployed, n (%)a35 (7.2)
High school degree or less, n (%)a131 (27.1)
Smoking during pregnancy, n (%)a53 (10.7)
Primiparous, n (%)231 (46.3)
Epidural anesthesia, n (%)379 (75.9)
Cesarean delivery, n (%)77 (15.4)
Birth weight, mean (SD), ga3387 (422)
Breastfed within 1 h of birth, n (%)a316 (66.9)
Pacifier use, n (%)a113 (23.4)
Length of stay, median (IQR), da4 (4–5)
BAS <8, n (%)a188 (44.3)
  • a Values were missing for maternal age (n = 3), marital status (n = 1), employment status (n = 16), education level (n = 16), smoking status (n = 5), birth weight (n = 2), breastfeeding within 1 h of birth (n = 27), pacifier use (n = 16), length of stay (n = 5), and BAS (n = 75).