TABLE 3

Outcome Comparisons

OutcomeMean (SD) for Trial ArmsAdjusted
Intervention (n = 45)Control (n = 43)Mean Difference (Intervention − Control)95% Confidence IntervalPEffect Size
Primary child outcomes
 Expressive language, PLS-41284.0 (13.9)80.2 (12.0)0.37−4.5 to 5.3.880.03
 Receptive language, PLS-41286.3 (19.4)77.3 (20.4)5.30.15 to 10.4.040.27
Secondary child outcomes: Expressive Vocabulary
 MCDI14263.7 (172.6)214.5 (146.3)32.8−17.3 to 83.0.200.21
 NDW54.9 (30.2)38.0 (30.3)11.42.5 to 20.4.010.38
 EOWPVT-31375.7 (16.3)70.0 (17.7)3.5−4.2 to 11.12.400.21
Secondary child outcomes: Receptive Vocabulary
 PPVT-41694.3 (13.6)85.6 (16.7)5.30.4 to 10.5.040.35
Primary caregiver outcomes, %
 Matched turns74 (13)32 (15)4034 to 46<.012.86
 Responsiveness85 (9)80 (14)51 to 10.050.43
 Targets47 (21)3 (4)3933 to 45<.012.55
 Expansions42 (18)4 (4)4235 to 48<.013.19
 Time delays42 (38)0 (0)2918 to 40<.011.07
 Prompting50 (38)3 (9)3517 to 53<.011.25
Secondary caregiver outcomes
 Stress, PSI15194.2 (43.4)216.6 (38.2)−6.7−16 to 2.6.15−0.16
  • Effect size calculated by dividing the adjusted mean difference by the pooled SD of the intervention and control arms. Adjusted analyses include baseline scores, household income, and child cognitive scores as covariates. PLS-4, Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition; MCDI, MacArthur Bates Communication Development Inventories; NDW, number of different words in a 20-minute play interaction; EOWPVT-3, Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition; PPVT, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition; PSI, Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition.