TABLE 2

Adjusted Associations Between Characteristics of Moisture Damage and Mold and Presence of Respiratory Symptoms at Each Questionnaire Survey and Sensitization to Inhalant Allergens at the Age of 6 Years

CharacteristicWheezing Apart From ColdNocturnal Cough Apart From ColdSensitization to Inhalant Allergensa
Nb (%)aORc (95% CI)Nb (%)aORc (95% CI)N (%)aORc (95% CI)
Kitchen
 Moisture damage, no (ref)1913 (6.9)11908 (16.5)1232 (38.8)1
  Minor501 (7.8)1.10 (0.63–1.90)501 (16.0)1.01 (0.65–1.57)62 (33.9)0.89 (0.48–1.64)
  Major133 (14.3)2.20 (1.08–4.49)*134 (17.2)1.05 (0.52–2.12)16 (37.5)1.16 (0.39–3.43)
 Moisture damage with mold, no (ref)2448 (7.2)12444 (16.4)1297 (38.4)1
  Spots34 (14.7)1.35 (0.40–4.58)34 (14.7)0.66 (0.18–2.36)5 (20.0)0.41 (0.04–3.77)
  Visible mold65 (10.8)1.21 (0.39–3.75)65 (18.5)0.97 (0.37–2.51)8 (25.0)0.59 (0.11–3.10)
Living room
 Moisture damage, no (ref)2098 (6.7)12093 (15.4)1255 (39.6)1
  Minor313 (10.5)1.35 (0.73–2.50)313 (21.4)1.51 (0.93–2.47)39 (30.8)0.73 (0.35–1.53)
  Major136 (11.0)2.07 (0.70–6.18)137 (19.7)1.71 (0.83–3.55)16 (25.0)0.55 (0.17–1.80)
 Moisture damage with mold, no (ref)2474 (7.1)12469 (16.1)1301 (38.2)1
  Spots40 (10.0)1.18 (0.36–3.83)40 (17.5)0.83 (0.29–2.42)5 (20.0)0.41 (0.04–3.95)
  Visible mold33 (27.3)5.77 (1.16–28.72)*34 (35.3)3.56 (0.98–13.01)4 (25.0)0.64 (0.06–6.41)
 Moisture damage with mold odor, no (ref)2527 (7.4)12523 (16.3)1308 (37.7)1
  Yes20 (5.0)0.85 (0.17–4.12)20 (30.0)1.64 (0.59–4.56)2 (50.0)1.07 (0.06–18.11)
Child's bedroom
 Moisture damage, no (ref)2173 (7.5)12169 (16.2)1264 (27.9)1
  Minor316 (5.4)0.72 (0.33–1.60)315 (14.3)0.93 (0.54–1.59)38 (39.5)1.12 (0.55–2.29)
  Major58 (17.2)2.21 (0.76–6.41)59 (33.9)2.66 (1.00–7.09)*8 (25.0)0.66 (0.13–3.41)
 Moisture damage with mold, no (ref)2443 (7.0)12439 (15.9)1298 (37.9)1
  Spots51 (17.7)2.58 (0.67–9.96)50 (30.0)1.69 (0.69–4.16)6 (33.3)0.71 (0.12–4.24)
  Visible mold53 (15.1)2.05 (0.51–8.21)54 (25.9)1.88 (0.51–6.89)6 (33.3)1.10 (0.19–6.29)
 Moisture damage with mold odor, no (ref)2530 (7.4)12526 (16.3)1308 (37.7)1
 Yes17 (11.8)0.83 (0.25–2.81)17 (35.3)1.55 (0.26–9.32)2 (50.0)1.52 (0.09–25.44)
Other main living areas
 Moisture damage, no (ref)1946 (6.8)11940 (16.7)1233 (38.6)1
  Minor350 (7.7)0.97 (0.49–1.91)349 (17.5)1.04 (0.65–1.67)45 (33.3)0.92 (0.46–1.85)
  Major251 (11.6)1.65 (0.81–3.35)254 (13.0)0.79 (0.43–1.43)32 (37.5)1.10 (0.49–2.48)
 Moisture damage with mold, no (ref)2361 (7.1)12356 (16.6)1284 (38.7)1
  Spots70 (12.9)1.90 (0.51–7.19)70 (15.7)0.97 (0.43–2.21)9 (33.3)0.83 (0.20–3.49)
  Visible mold116 (10.3)1.26 (0.42–3.76)117 (13.7)0.79 (0.30–2.07)17 (23.5)0.59 (0.18–1.89)
 Moisture damage with mold odor, no (ref)2519 (7.4)12515 (16.5)1307 (37.5)1
  Yes28 (10.7)1.75 (0.62–4.94)28 (7.1)0.40 (0.07–2.41)3 (66.7)2.11 (0.18–24.54)
Child's main living areas
 Moisture damage or mold (combined)
 No moisture damage and no mold1627 (6.6)11623 (15.9)1197 (39.1)1
 Minor moisture damage with or without mold spots587 (7.5)1.16 (0.69–1.94)586 (16.2)1.07 (0.71–1.59)72 (36.1)0.94 (0.53–1.66)
 Major moisture damage or any moisture damage with visible mold333 (11.4)1.69 (0.88–3.24)334 (19.2)1.27 (0.77–2.09)41 (34.2)0.96 (0.46–2.00)
  • * P < .05. aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

  • a Atopic sensitization to any tested inhalant allergen (≥0.70 kU/L) at the age of 6 years.

  • b Subjects contributed up to 7 repeated observations to this analysis by using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations.

  • c Models were adjusted for study cohort, farming status, gender, maternal history of allergic diseases (hay fever, atopic dermatitis, and/or asthma), smoking during pregnancy, and number of siblings.