TABLE 1

Adjusted Associations Between Characteristics of Moisture Damage or Mold and Incidence of Asthma Ever and Persistent Asthma

CharacteristicAsthma EverPersistent Asthma
NnNa (%)aORb (95% CI)NnNa (%)aORb (95% CI)
Kitchen
 Moisture damage, no (ref)298481689 (2.8)1270251670 (1.5)1
  Minor7511402 (2.7)0.99 (0.50–1.97)697391 (1.8)1.17 (0.49–2.79)
  Major21592 (5.4)2.50 (0.93–6.72)19398 (3.1)2.32 (0.66–8.18)
 Moisture damage with mold, no (ref)379612112 (2.9)1345332089 (1.6)1
 Spots5222 (9.1)2.81 (0.60–13.15)5222 (9.1)5.07 (1.03–24.93)*
 Visible mold10149 (2.0)0.55 (0.07–4.14)8048 (0)c
Living room
 Moisture damage, no (ref)326491826 (2.7)1294261797 (1.5)1
  Minor4812247 (4.9)2.11 (1.07–4.18)*447246 (2.9)2.32 (0.95–5.66)
  Major203110 (2.7)1.55 (0.45–5.27)202116 (1.7)1.82 (0.40–8.25)
 Maximum severity,d class 0 (ref)285461591 (2.9)1259251576 (1.6)1
  Class 1413235 (1.3)0.46 (0.14–1.52)351221 (0.5)0.29 (0.04–2.19)
  Class 23910204 (4.9)2.07 (0.98–4.38)355203 (2.5)1.94 (0.69–5.46)
  Class 3274149 (2.7)1.17 (0.40–4.38)273155 (1.9)1.61 (0.45–5.73)
  Class 4214 (25.0)40.47 (3.28–499.59)**214 (25.0)67.45 (4.48–1016)**
 Moisture damage with mold, no (ref)383602141 (2.8)1347322111 (1.5)1
 Spots6224 (8.3)3.42 (0.75–15.63)6224 (8.3)6.72 (1.35–33.29)*
 Visible mold5218 (11.1)7.51 (1.49–37.83)*5124 (4.2)5.85 (0.66–52.05)
 Moisture damage with mold odor, no (ref)391642167 (3.0)1355352143 (1.6)1
  Yes3016 (0)c3016 (0)c
Child’s bedroom
 Moisture damage, no (ref)338551869 (2.9)1307301843 (1.6)1
  Minor476270 (2.2)0.81 (0.34–1.93)433271 (1.1)0.76 (0.23–2.55)
  Major9344 (6.8)3.25 (0.91–11.66)8245 (4.4)2.84 (0.60–13.39)
 Maximum severity,d class 0 (ref)299491651 (3.0)1271271629 (1.7)1
  Class 1396218 (2.8)0.89 (0.36–2.17)363214 (1.4)0.80 (0.23–2.82)
  Class 2302187 (1.1)0.38 (0.09–1.59)270185 (0)c
  Class 3267127 (5.5)2.17 (0.93–5.05)245131 (3.8)2.39 (0.87–6.61)
 Moisture damage with mold, no (ref)378582114 (2.7)1343312084 (1.5)1
 Spots8336 (8.3)3.13 (0.89–11.02)7236 (5.6)3.35 (0.70–16.14)
 Visible mold8333 (9.1)4.82 (1.29–18.02)*8239 (5.1)5.53 (1.11–27.48)*
 Moisture damage with mold odor, no (ref)391632170 (2.9)1356352145 (1.6)1
  Yes3113 (7.7)1.82 (0.22–15.19)2014 (0)c
Other main living areas
 Moisture damage, no (ref)302481690 (2.8)1276251681 (1.5)1
  Minor5310285 (3.5)1.40 (0.68–2.90)467265 (2.6)2.20 (0.89–5.45)
  Major396208 (2.9)1.15 (0.47–2.83)363213 (1.4)1.02 (0.30–3.54)
 Moisture damage with mold, no (ref)366592030 (2.9)1330321998 (1.6)1
 Spots10261 (3.3)1.41 (0.33–6.15)10261 (3.3)2.80 (0.62–12.76)
 Visible mold18392 (3.3)1.06 (0.31–3.62)181100 (1.0)0.65 (0.08–5.01)
 Moisture damage with mold odor, no (ref)390632159 (2.9)1354342135 (1.6)1
  Yes4124 (4.2)1.66 (0.21–13.13)4124 (4.2)3.06 (0.35–26.48)
Child’s main living areas
 Moisture damage or mold (combined)
 No moisture damage and no mold (ref)254391437 (2.7)1230221410 (1.6)1
 Minor damage with or without mold spots9017485 (3.5)1.31 (0.72–2.36)819475 (1.9)1.25 (0.56–2.79)
 Major moisture damage or any moisture damage with visible mold508261 (3.1)1.33 (0.60–2.98)474274 (1.5)0.98 (0.32–2.95)
  • * P < .05; ** P < .01. aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; N, total number of children in the beginning of the follow-up; n, the number of cases in each category.

  • a Subjects contributed up to 7 repeated observations to this survival analysis that used discrete-time hazard models.

  • b Models were adjusted for study cohort, farming status, gender, maternal history of allergic diseases (hay fever, atopic dermatitis, and/or asthma), smoking during pregnancy, and number of siblings.

  • c Cannot be estimated.

  • d Defined as the highest “need for repair” class of the damage in a given area (discussed in the Supplemental Information).