TABLE 4

Breastfeeding Outcomes: Initiation to Hospital Discharge

StudyCategoryType of BreastfeedingTime PointInterventionControlRR (95% CI); P
n/N%n/N%
Sciacca et al, 199528,29Breast pumps, gifts, vouchers, football tickets, and raffle giftsExclusiveDischarge23/2688.516/2955.21.60 (1.12–2.29); .007
Sciacca et al, 199528,29Breast pumps, gifts, vouchers, football tickets, and raffle giftsAnyDischarge26/26100.023/2979.31.26 (1.05–1.52); .014
Rasmussen et al, 201126Breast pump, electricUnclear4 d postpartum12/1392.312/121000.92 (0.79–1.08); .33
Rasmussen et al, 201126Breast pump, manualUnclear4 d postpartum7/977.812/121000.78 (0.55–1.10); .086
Chamberlain et al, 2006,19 US-born blackBreast pumps and implementing BFIUnclearInitiationNR74NR16
Chamberlain et al, 200619 non–US-born blackBreast pumps and implementing BFIUnclearInitiationNR96NR43
Zimmerman 199933 year 1aGifts and vouchersExclusiveDischarge74/14451.467/18835.61.44 (1.12–1.85); .004
Zimmerman 199933 year 1aGifts and vouchersAnyDischarge88/14461.193/18849.51.24 (1.02–1.50); .035
Zimmerman 199933 year 2aGifts and vouchersExclusiveDischarge222/40554.867/18835.61.54 (1.24–1.90); <.001
Zimmerman 199933 year 2aGifts and vouchersAnyDischarge269/40566.493/18849.51.34 (1.14–1.58); <.001
Tuttle and Dewey, 199527Gifts and vouchersUnclearInitiation24/6338.1NRNR
Volpe and Bear, 200031Gifts and vouchersUnclearInitiation28/4365.17/4814.64.47 (2.18–9.16); <.001
  • CI, confidence interval; NR, not reported; RR, relative risk.

  • a The study collected outcomes data from 2 consecutive years and compared these with baseline data.