TABLE 2

Baseline and Demographic Characteristics of Participants

StudyAge, yEthnicityRelationship StatusType of Pregnancy/Mode of BirthType of Feeding Method at BaselineEducation LevelSES
WhiteBlackOtherMarried and/or Living With PartnerOtherPrimiparousMultiparousVaginalCesarean DeliveryBreast MilkFormulaBothCompleted High SchoolLess than High SchoolCollege or HigherIncome (monthly or yearly)
MeanSDN%n%N%N%n%N%n%n%n%N%N%n%N%N%n%Mean%
Bliss et al, 199718
Hayes et al, 20082395391496112651116479639
Dungy et al, 1992212913591.821.49613994.685.414095.964.14631.353.49665.8US $30 000/ya
Rasmussen et al, 20112629.1247110291544.11955.92470.61029.42470.6
Chamberlain et al, 200619100
Cohen and Mrtek, 19942031.49450.33116.66233.2
Sciacca et al, 199528,293665.568100
Finch and Daniel, 20022224.23266.71429.1
Zimmerman, 199933281588477238653514678673695512614
Tuttle and Dewey, 199527,a25.96.8412100
Volpe and Bear, 20003116.25762.62426.41011.0
Thomson et al, 20123029.1
Pugh and Milligan, 19982524.455934778132260100601005897
Wolfberg et al, 200432,b5084.73559.31627.1
Hill 19872461954469274237580
  • SES, socioeconomic status.

  • a Mean age of intervention group only.

  • b Data for female participants.