TABLE 4

Bullying Perpetration Moderators

Suicide IdeationSuicide Behaviors
k (n)OR (95% CI)Q-Betweenk (n)OR (95% CI)Q-Between
Gender2.470.78
 Mixture14 (33)1.88 (1.37–2.58)13 (22)2.63 (1.41–4.92)
 All-female9 (16)2.55 (1.75–3.72)2 (2)1.90 (0.31–11.47)
 All-male9 (16)2.45 (1.68–3.57)2 (2)4.30 (0.48–38.51)
Country2.6510.92*
 US9 (26)2.65 (1.85–3.78)9 (17)4.16 (2.21–7.86)
 International14 (38)1.79 (1.31–2.44)6 (8)1.24 (0.54–2.83)
Bully assessment8.332.82
 Definition and non-behavioral4 (12)3.38 (1.99–5.75)2 (6)2.69 (0.58–12.5)
 Series of behavioral questions9 (21)2.26 (1.58–3.24)7 (10)4.08 (1.70–9.8)
 Definition and series of behavior questions3 (14)2.01 (1.07–3.80)
 Only asking if they were victimized/bullied4 (9)1.68 (0.95–2.96)3 (4)1.31 (0.36–4.75)
 Peer nominations2 (6)0.99 (0.49–2.02)2 (3)1.29 (0.24–7.03)
 Multiple categories
  • k, number of studies; n, number of effect sizes. * P < .05. —, No studies used a definition and series of behavior questions or multiple categories to assess the relationship between bullying perpetration and suicidal behaviors.