TABLE 3

Cognitive and Adaptive Development

SubdomainsAutism (n = 14)Language (n = 14)aTypical (n = 14)
Mean (SD); 95% CI
Mullen Scales of Early Learning (t scores, mean, 50; SD, 10)
Visual Reception (VR)30 (12)b; 23–3739 (11); 33–4649 (13)b; 42–56
Receptive Language (RL)26 (7)b,d; 22–3039 (13)c,d; 32–4754 (10)b,d; 48–60
Expressive Language (EL)29 (9)b; 23–3433 (9)d; 28–3853 (11)b,d; 47–59
Gross Motor (GM)42 (12)b; 30–4851 (14); 43–5959 (10)b; 53–64
Fine Motor (FM)36 (13); 28–4344 (14); 36–5246 (12); 39–52
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (standard scores, mean, 100; SD, 15)
Communication (Com)79 (13)e; 71–8787 (11)f; 62–94108 (10)e,f; 94–116
Daily Living (DL)f92 (11)g; 86–9898 (11); 75–103113 (14)g; 91–123
Socialization (Soc)89 (9)h; 82–9293 (10)i; 71–100109 (11)h,i; 96–117
Motor (Mot)i88 (9)j; 83–9493 (11)k; 55–97103 (7)j,k; 93–109
  • No significant differences in scores by age were found. Significant differences between genders were found only for Expressive Language on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning within the Language group F (1,12) 16.7; P = .002. Mean score for girls in the Language group was 41.2 (SD, 6.7; median, 39) and for boys it was 28.1 (SD, 5.2; median, 30). CI, confidence interval.

  • a One Vineland in the Language group was not completed.

  • b Autism < Typical, P ≤ .001; Cohen’s d Effect Size (ES)VR = 1.53, ESRL = 3.31, ESEL = 2.43, ESGM = 1.508.

  • c Autism < Language, P = .003; ESRL = 1.324.

  • d Language < Typical, P ≤ .001; ESRL = 1.28, ESEL = 2.07.

  • e Autism < Typical, P = .005; ESCom = 1.54.

  • f Language < Typical, P = .004; ESCom = 1.169.

  • g Distribution of Vineland DL scores was significantly skewed (−1.184) seskew = 0.369. Kruskal-Wallis χ2 (2) = 10.369; P = .006, ASD (mean rank, 16.04) < Typical (29.32), P = .01.

  • h Autism < Typical, P = .02; ESSoc = 1.35.

  • i Language < Typical, P = .01; ESSoc = 0.99.

  • j Distribution of Vineland Mot was significantly skewed (−1.941) seskew = 0.374. Kruskal-Wallis χ2 (2) = 12.644; P = .002, ASD (mean rank, 15.07) < Typical (29.39), P = .003.

  • k Language (16.46) < Typical, P = .01.