TABLE 3

Linear Regression Models Predicting Child Reading and Math Ability at Kindergarten Entry, ECLS-B Study, 2001–2007 (N = 6600)

Reading β (SE)Math β (SE)
SES
 Q1 (lowest)ReferenceReference
 Q24.30 (1.25)*3.35 (1.15)*
 Q39.88 (1.83)*6.93 (1.61)*
 Q410.79 (1.94)*10.07 (1.77)*
 Q5 (highest)16.08 (2.20)*16.02 (1.84)*
Family background
 Child race/ethnicity
  White, non-HispanicReferenceReference
  Black, non-Hispanic3.10 (1.40)*−3.00 (1.46)*
  Hispanic−0.17 (1.54)−3.81 (1.42)*
  Asian/Pacific Islander12.16 (1.64)*9.48 (1.38)*
  Multiracial/other−1.42 (2.28)−4.39 (2.10)*
 Mother’s age0.09 (0.09)0.13 (0.06)*
 Child age at assessment1.96 (0.10)*2.10 (0.11)*
 Family structure
  Two parentsReferenceReference
  Single mother−1.73 (1.11)0.08 (0.06)
  Other−3.43 (2.57)−4.29 (2.51)
 Household size−1.12 (0.35)*−0.38 (0.32)
Health
 Mother prepregnancy BMI−0.19 (0.08)*−0.13 (0.06)*
 Prenatal smoking2.30 (1.45)2.14 (1.36)
 Prenatal alcohol use−4.04 (2.75)−0.50 (2.54)
 Maternal depression−0.11 (0.11)−0.26 (0.09)*
 Ever breastfed1.58 (0.98)1.71 (0.93)
 Low child birth weight−3.44 (1.14)*−6.43 (1.03)*
 Good/fair/poor child health−3.49 (1.25)*−4.33 (1.15)*
Home learning environment
 Parent reading3.97 (0.84)*3.41 (0.77)*
 Home computer3.83 (0.94)*4.26 (0.74)*
 No. children’s books0.01 (0.01)0.01 (0.01)
 No. children’s toys−0.02 (0.01)−0.01 (0.01)
 No. children’s DVDs−0.04 (0.02)0.01 (0.03)
 Library visit (age 4)0.33 (0.81)0.94 (0.77)
 Daily game playing (age 2)1.62 (1.15)−0.66 (1.07)
Parenting style/beliefs
 Positive interactions0.25 (0.10)*0.22 (0.09)*
 Parent supportiveness1.04 (0.60)1.62 (0.60)*
 Rules about bedtime−1.05 (1.55)−1.00 (1.57)
 Rules about food2.95 (1.13)*3.93 (1.14)*
 Rules about chores0.27 (0.95)−0.62 (1.02)
 Expects child to earn college degree5.27 (1.11)*3.87 (1.02)*
Early care and education
 Primary care arrangement (age 2)
  No nonparental careReferenceReference
  Relative care1.78 (1.23)2.07 (1.07)
  Nonrelative care1.02 (1.22)0.60 (1.06)
  Center-based care−0.47 (1.23)0.54 (1.22)
 Preschool attendance (year before kindergarten)5.32 (1.08)*2.76 (0.94)*
 No. of organized classes/activities
  0ReferenceReference
  21.46 (1.07)1.92 (0.95)*
  ≥22.52 (1.03)*3.44 (1.19)*