TABLE 2

Decomposition of the SES Gradients in Children’s Reading and Math Ability (N = 6600)

ReadingMath
Percentile Point GapAs % Total GapPercentile Point GapAs % Total Gap
Q1–Q5Q1–Q3Q1–Q5Q1–Q3Q1–Q5Q1–Q3Q1–Q5Q1–Q3
Raw gap33.518.337.117.5
Total explained17.58.4524721.110.65760
Total unexplained16.09.9485316.06.94340
Family background2.81.1864.82.21313
 Child race/ethnicity−0.1−0.40−22.61.377
 Mother’s age0.60.2211.00.332
 Child’s age0.70.4220.80.523
 Family structure0.70.4220.10.000
 Household size0.80.5230.30.211
Health1.30.8452.11.267
 Mother prepregnancy BMI0.30.0100.20.010
 Prenatal smoking−0.30.0−10−0.30.0−10
 Prenatal alcohol use−0.20.0−100.00.000
 Maternal depression0.30.2110.70.422
 Ever breastfed0.50.1110.50.111
 Low child birth weight0.10.1110.30.111
 Good/fair/poor child health status0.60.4220.70.523
Home learning environment5.92.918166.83.41819
 Parent reading3.51.51083.01.388
 Home computer2.21.4782.41.569
 No. children’s books0.70.3221.30.643
 No. children’s toys−0.3−0.2−1−1−0.2−0.20−1
 No. children’s DVDs−0.4−0.2−1−10.10.100
 Library visit (age 4)0.10.0000.20.010
 Daily game playing (age 2)0.20.1100.00.000
Parenting style/beliefs5.12.515145.32.81416
 Positive interactions0.90.4320.80.422
 Parent supportiveness1.10.6341.71.056
 Rules about bedtime−0.1−0.100−0.1−0.100
 Rules about food1.10.7341.40.945
 Rules about chores0.00.000−0.1−0.100
 Expects child to earn college degree2.10.8641.50.643
Early care and education2.41.1762.11.066
 Primary care arrangement (age 2)0.00.1010.00.201
 Preschool attendance (year before kindergarten entry)1.40.6430.70.322
 No. of organized classes/activities1.00.4321.40.543
  • Results were calculated rounding β coefficients to 3 decimal places. Column totals may be affected by rounding.