TABLE 1

SES Gradients in Family and Child Characteristics and Behaviors, ECLS-B Study, 2001–2007 (N = 6600)

SESWald Test P
Q1 (lowest)Q2Q3Q4Q5 (highest)
Family background
 Child race/ethnicity (%)<.05
  White, non-Hispanic21.341.857.171.178.0
  Black, non-Hispanic25.917.813.19.24.3
  Hispanic48.332.922.413.87.1
  Asian/Pacific Islander1.52.31.62.36.1
  Multiracial/other3.05.25.83.64.4
 Mother’s age (mean)25.325.427.530.032.9<.05
 Child age at assessment (mean, in mo)67.968.468.168.268.2NS
 Family structure (%)<.05
  Two parents56.770.278.287.094.6
  Single mother40.326.419.711.05.1
  Other3.13.32.01.90.3
 Household size (mean)4.74.54.34.04.0<.05
Health
 Mother prepregnancy BMI (mean)25.525.325.424.724.0<.05
 Prenatal smoking (%)17.018.315.44.72.0<.05
 Prenatal alcohol use (%)2.81.72.23.27.1<.05
 Maternal depression (mean)6.55.74.94.13.7<.05
 Ever breastfed (%)55.658.963.578.686.5<.05
 Low child birth weight (%)9.78.17.56.35.6<.05
 Good/fair/poor child health status (%)23.116.010.48.36.6<.05
Home learning environment
 Parent reading (mean)2.62.83.03.23.5<.05
 Home computer (%)27.248.663.476.183.7<.05
 No. children’s books (mean)25.642.565.688.3113.7<.05
 No. children’s toys (mean)25.333.135.938.537.5<.05
 No. children’s DVDs (mean)6.28.811.113.715.9<.05
 Library visit (age 4) (%)35.438.638.948.156.6<.05
 Daily game playing (age 2) (%)76.682.280.884.886.8<.05
Parenting style/beliefs
 Positive interactions (mean)32.933.334.735.736.6<.05
 Parent supportiveness (mean)3.84.14.44.64.9<.05
 Rules about bedtime (%)81.884.988.691.995.5<.05
 Rules about food (%)55.767.379.786.892.2<.05
 Rules about chores (%)64.670.473.176.074.9<.05
 Expects child to earn college degree (%)57.259.971.686.296.5<.05
Early care and education
 Primary care arrangement (age 2) (%)<.05
  No nonparental care67.350.646.647.643.9
  Relative care16.926.521.616.79.3
  Nonrelative care6.510.915.420.323.0
  Center-based care9.212.016.415.423.8
 Preschool attendance (year before kindergarten entry) (%)63.764.774.482.689.4<.05
 Number of organized classes/activities (%)<.05
  075.268.955.940.526.1
  114.818.526.832.232.7
  ≥210.012.717.427.441.2