TABLE 4

ITS Analysis for Students Reporting Any Type of Bias-Based Bullying Other Than Homophobic Bullying: California Students (2001–2014)

Fixed EffectsRace and/or EthnicityReligionGender
bSEbSEbSE
Prevote
 Linear trend−1.04***0.13−0.160.10−0.11***0.02
 Quadratic trend−0.18***0.02−0.03*0.01
Prevote-versus-postvote change
 Postvote0.54*0.26−0.130.21−0.48***0.12
 Linear trend*postvote0.70***0.17−0.080.13−0.10**0.03
 Quadratic trend*postvote0.22***0.030.05**0.02
Probed postvote trends
 Linear trend−0.34**0.12−0.24**0.08−0.21***0.02
 Quadratic trend0.04*0.020.020.01
Random effect
 School meana16.231.853.551.013.070.53
 Residuala31.711.4918.731.6619.111.52
  • Variance explained for each of the 3 types of bias-based bullying is as follows: race and/or ethnicity (0.021), religion (0.008), and gender (0.037). Analyses were restricted to students who reported being bullied because of their race and/or ethnicity, religion, or gender but not because of their sexual orientation (eg, students who reported being bullied because of their race and/or ethnicity were excluded from analyses if they also reported being bullied because of their sexual orientation). Categories are not mutually exclusive; that is, students could report multiple types of bullying as long as they did not report homophobic bullying (eg, students in the race and/or ethnicity category could also have reported being bullied because of their gender or religion). Rates of nonhomophobic bullying were estimated on the basis of the aggregated school-level data (n = 5121). Time was centered on the 2008–2009 academic year (postvote = 0 [2001–2002 through 2007–2008] versus 1 [2008–2009 through 2014–2015]). The coefficient for postvote indicates the prevote-versus-postvote intercept change. The coefficient for linear trend*postvote indicates the prevote-versus-postvote change in the linear trend; the coefficient for quadratic trend*postvote indicates the prevote-versus-postvote change in the quadratic trend. Postvote linear and quadratic trends were probed via post hoc analyses of significant interactions. The quadratic trend for bias-based bullying due to gender was also tested but was not significant and thus dropped (indicated by —).

  • a Values refer to variance.

  • * P < .05.

  • ** P < .01.

  • *** P < .001.