TABLE 3

Prevalence of Frequent Night Waking (>3 Times Per Night in the Previous 15 Days) According to Maternal and Infant Characteristics

VariablesFrequent Night Waking, %P
Maternal characteristics
 Family income (quintiles).151
   1 (poorest)19.2
   216.0
   314.5
   412.2
   5 (wealthiest)9.8
 Living with partner.077
   Yes13.2
   No19.2
 Schooling, y.139
   Up to 421.3
   5–813.3
   9–1113.6
   ≥1210.8
 Maternal age, y.274
   <2010.0
   20–3515.1
   >3514.6
 Maternal skin color.031
   White12.1
   Black18.8
   Other20.4
  Parity.733
   013.8
   1–314.9
   ≥411.4
 Paid work during pregnancy.702
   No14.5
   Yes13.6
 Smoking during pregnancy.029
   No12.4
   Yes18.3
 Daily cigarettes during pregnancy.717
   1–1019.1
   >1017.1
 Alcohol consumption.044
   No13.6
   Yes25.7
 Maternal depression 3 mo postpartum.217
   No13.6
   Yes18.2
 Heavy consumption first trimester.417
   No13.6
   Yes15.9
 Heavy consumption second trimester.408
   No13.6
   Yes16.0
 Heavy consumption third trimester.337
   No13.6
   Yes16.5
 Heavy consumption 3 mo postpartum (all infants).241
   No13.6
   Yes17.7
 Heavy consumption whole pregnancy and postpartum (all infants).108
   No13.6
   Yes21.0
 Heavy consumption 3 mo postpartum (breastfed only).146
   No13.3
   Yes19.5
 Heavy consumption whole pregnancy and postpartum (breastfed only).114
   No13.5
   Yes22.5
Infant characteristics
 Gender.033
   Boy16.7
   Girl11.5
 Maternal bed-sharing.231
   No13.0
   Yes16.1
 No. of h slept at daytime (tertiles).379
   116.5
   212.7
   313.3