TABLE 4

Prevalence Ratios and 95% CIs for Frequent Night Waking (>3 Times Per Night in the Previous 15 Days) Among Infants of Mothers With Heavy Consumption of Caffeine (≥300 mg/day) According to the Trimester of Pregnancy and Postpartum Period

Caffeine ConsumptionnaFrequent Night Waking
Crude AnalysisAdjusted Analysis
PR (95% CI)PPR (95% CI)P
Heavy consumption first trimester.414.907b
 Yes1951.17 (0.80–1.71)0.98 (0.66–1.45)
 No6261.001.00
Heavy consumption second trimester.405.970c
 Yes1811.18 (0.80–1.74)1.01 (0.67–1.51)
 No6401.001.00
Heavy consumption third trimester.334.487d
 Yes1641.22 (0.82–1.80)1.15 (0.77–1.71)
 No6541.001.00
Heavy consumption 3 mo postpartum (all infants).234.271d
 Yes1131.31 (0.84–2.03)1.30 (0.82–2.05)
 No7081.001.00
Heavy consumption whole pregnancy and postpartum (all infants).098.080e
 Yes621.55 (0.92–2.59)1.64 (0.94–2.86)
 No7591.001.00
Heavy consumption 3 mo postpartum (breastfed only).138.128d
 Yes771.46 (0.88–2.41)1.49 (0.89–2.51)
 No5481.001.00
Heavy consumption whole pregnancy and postpartum (breastfed only).102.135e
 Yes401.67 (0.90–3.07)1.65 (0.86–3.17)
 No5851.001.00
  • PR, prevalence ratio.

  • a Data available for caffeine consumption and night waking.

  • b Controlled for maternal age, skin color, parity, smoking, alcohol consumption, child’s gender, and family income.

  • c Controlled for maternal age, skin color, parity, smoking, alcohol consumption, child’s gender, and family income.

  • d Controlled for maternal age, skin color, parity, alcohol consumption, child’s gender, and family income.

  • e Controlled for maternal age, skin color, schooling, parity, alcohol consumption, child’s gender, and family income.