Recommendations on Breastfeeding Management for Preterm Infants

1. All preterm infants should receive human milk.
 • Human milk should be fortified, with protein, minerals, and vitamins to ensure optimal nutrient intake for infants weighing <1500 g at birth.
 • Pasteurized donor human milk, appropriately fortified, should be used if mother’s own milk is unavailable or its use is contraindicated.
2. Methods and training protocols for manual and mechanical milk expression must be available to mothers.
3. Neonatal intensive care units should possess evidence-based protocols for collection, storage, and labeling of human milk.150
4. Neonatal intensive care units should prevent the misadministration of human milk (
5. There are no data to support routinely culturing human milk for bacterial or other organisms.151