TABLE 3

Childhood Gender Nonconformity as a Predictor of Probable PTSD in Youth, With Mediation by Childhood Abuse and Youth Sexual Orientation, Growing Up Today Study I (n = 8968)

Model 1: Gender Nonconformity, RR (95% CI)Model 2: Gender Nonconformity and Childhood Abuse, RR (95% CI)Mediation Proportion Owing to Childhood Abuse, %Model 3: Gender Nonconformity, Childhood Abuse, and Youth Sexual Orientation, RR (95% CI)Mediation Proportion Owing to Abuse and Sexual Orientation, %
Gender nonconformity
 Below median1.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
 Above median, below top decile1.3 (1.1–1.6)**1.3 (1.1–1.5)**16.91.2 (1.0–1.2)*34.5**
 Top decile1.8 (1.5–2.2)***1.5 (1.3–1.8)***32.8***1.4 (1.1–1.6)**51.0***
Childhood abuse
 Sexual, before age 11 y1.5 (1.2–1.8)***1.4 (1.2–1.4)***
 Sexual, ages 12–17 y2.7 (2.3–3.2)***2.5 (1.6–1.9)***
 Physical, before age 11 y1.2 (0.9–1.5)1.1 (1.0–1.3)*
 Physical, ages 12–17 y1.3 (1.0–1.6)1.2 (0.9–1.2)
 Psychological, before age 11 y1.3 (1.0–1.7)1.3 (0.9,–1.1)
 Psychological, ages 12–17 y1.9 (1.5–2.4)***1.8 (1.4–1.7)***
Sexual orientation
 Heterosexual1.0 (Reference)
 Heterosexual, same-sex sexual contact1.3 (0.8–2.1)
 Mostly heterosexual1.5 (1.3–1.8)***
 Bisexual2.2 (1.6–3.0)***
 Lesbian/gay1.7 (0.9–3.0)
  • All models adjusted for age at questionnaire return, sex, and race.

  • Two-sided Wald χ2 significant at

  • * P < .05,

  • ** P < .01,

  • *** P < .001.