TABLE 1

Prevalence of Probable PTSD and Childhood Abuse by Childhood Gender Nonconformity, Growing Up Today Study I (n = 9489)a

Childhood Gender Nonconformity
Below Median (n = 4895), %Above Median but Below Highest Decile (n = 3211), %Highest Decile (n = 1383), %
Probable PTSD (lifetime)
 Women7.48.312.9***
 Men3.56.9***7.4***
Psychological abuse before age 11 y
 Women11.611.817.7***
 Men10.510.813.2
Psychological abuse ages 11–17 y
 Women12.012.718.8***
 Men9.412.711.7**
Physical abuse before age 11 y
 Women11.712.818.0***
 Men13.014.816.8*
Physical abuse ages 11–17 y
 Women8.79.213.8***
 Men9.811.712.7
Sexual abuse before age 11 y
 Women7.39.0*11.4***
 Men3.24.26.0*
Sexual abuse ages 11–17 y
 Women7.48.712.0***
 Men1.01.65.9***
Any physical abuse
 Women14.014.921.5***
 Men15.918.419.8
Any psychological abuse
 Women15.916.323.0***
 Men13.315.415.4
Any sexual abuse
 Women12.815.2*19.9***
 Men3.85.3*10.5***
Any abuse
 Women29.030.639.2***
 Men23.126.8*30.3**
  • a Ns for some rows are smaller because of missing responses.

  • Two-sided Wald χ2 test of significance,

  • * P < .05,

  • ** P < .01,

  • *** P < .001.