TABLE 5

Relative Difference in Change Over Time in Health Utilization Between SDM Groupsa

Hospitalizationsb
(95% CI)P ValuecED Visitsb
(95% CI)P ValuecOffice-based Visitsd
(95% CI)P ValuecPrescriptionsd
(95% CI)P Valuec
SDM increasing
vs unchanged high−4.4 (−8.7, −0.1).04−10.3 (−18.6, −1.9).02−1.3 (−2.3, −0.3).01−0.8 (−1.8, 0.2).1
 vs unchanged low−5.1 (−10.8, 0.7).08−2.9 (−14.5, 8.6).6−2.2 (−4.2, −0.2).03−0.8 (−1.8, 0.3).1
 vs decreasing−1.1 (−8.6, 6.3).8−6.5 (−18.6, 5.6).3−1.7 (−3.2, −0.3).02−0.4 (−1.6, 0.8).5
SDM unchanged high
vs unchanged low0.6 (−4.4, 5.7).8−7.3 (−17.8, 3.1).20.9 (−1.7, 2.8).4−0.1 (−1.0, 1.0).9
 vs decreasing3.3 (−3.4, 10.0).33.7 (−7.5, 15.0).5−0.4 (−1.7, 0.9).50.4 (−0.8, 1.5).5
SDM unchanged low
vs decreasing3.9 (−3.6, 11.5).3−3.6 (−17.4, 10.2).60.5 (−1.7, 2.7).70.3 (−0.9, 1.5).6
  • a Since the inclusion of covariates did not change the association of SDM with utilization, unadjusted results are shown.

  • b Rates are per 100 patients per year.

  • c P values calculated from linear regression with robust variance estimation accounting for the MEPS complex survey design.

  • d Rates are per patient per year.