All CSHCN | SDM Increasing | SDM Unchanged High | SDM Unchanged Low | SDM Decreasing | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Sample N | 2858 | 483 | 1443 | 484 | 448 |

No. children represented in population | 12.0 million | 1.9 million | 6.3 million | 2.0 million | 1.8 million |

Percent represented | 100.0% | 15.9% | 51.9% | 17.0% | 15.2% |

Mean total health expenditures^{a}: | |||||

in year 1^{b} | 2131 | 2050 | 2111 | 2222 | 2178 |

in year 2 | 2071 | 1711 | 2033 | 2204 | 2423 |

change (95% CI)^{c} | −60 (−202, 82) | −339 (−660, −21) | −78 (−260, 104) | −18 (−459, 422) | 245 (−181, 672) |

Mean out-of-pocket expenditures^{a}: | |||||

in year 1^{b} | 389 | 398 | 396 | 392 | 351 |

in year 2 | 374 | 333 | 384 | 334 | 428 |

change (95% CI)^{c} | −15 (−46, 17) | −65 (−150, 21) | −12 (−58, 34) | −58 (−133, 17) | 77 (−12, 166) |

Mean office-based expenditures^{a}: | |||||

in year 1^{b} | 557 | 521 | 544 | 645 | 538 |

in year 2 | 537 | 452 | 541 | 566 | 576 |

change (95% CI)^{c} | −20 (−60, 20) | −69 (−146, 8) | −3 (−53, 47) | −79 (−193, 34) | 38 (−80, 157) |

Mean inpatient expenditures^{a}: | |||||

in year 1^{b} | 127 | 133 | 107 | 140 | 173 |

in year 2 | 130 | 85 | 120 | 204 | 126 |

change (95% CI)^{c} | 3 (−35, 38) | −48 (−130, 34) | 13 (−34, 60) | 64 (−41, 169) | −47 (−135, 42) |

Mean ED expenditures^{a}: | |||||

in year 1^{b} | 64 | 63 | 66 | 60 | 59 |

in year 2 | 54 | 32 | 62 | 45 | 58 |

change (95% CI)^{c} | −10 (−19, 1) | −31 (−51, 12) | −4 (−17, 10) | −15 (−39, 8) | −1 (−29, 28) |

Mean prescription expenditures^{a}: | |||||

in year 1^{b} | 478 | 430 | 505 | 422 | 498 |

in year 2 | 547 | 508 | 571 | 511 | 548 |

change (95% CI)^{c} | 69 (38, 101) | 78 (9, 148) | 66 (23, 108) | 89 (19, 159) | 50 (−30, 131) |

Mean rate of hospitalizations^{d}: | |||||

in year 1^{b} | 6.5 | 7.5 | 5.0 | 6.8 | 10.2 |

in year 2 | 5.9 | 3.5 | 5.4 | 7.9 | 7.4 |

change (95% CI)^{c} | −0.6 (−2.4, 1.2) | −4.0 (−7.9, −0.1) | 0.4 (−1.8, 2.7) | 1.1 (−3.4, 5.6) | −2.8 (−9.0, 3.3) |

Mean rate of ED visits^{d}: | |||||

in year 1^{b} | 27.0 | 26.1 | 24.6 | 32.3 | 30.3 |

in year 2 | 22.5 | 14.8 | 23.5 | 23.9 | 25.5 |

change (95% CI)^{c} | −4.5 (−7.9, -1.1) | −11.3 (−18.3, −4.3) | −1.1 (−5.2, 3.1) | −8.4 (−18.3, 1.4) | −4.8 (−15.0, 5.4) |

Mean rate of office visits^{e}: | |||||

in year 1^{b} | 6.1 | 6.3 | 6.0 | 6.4 | 5.6 |

in year 2 | 6.2 | 5.1 | 6.2 | 7.4 | 6.2 |

change (95% CI)^{c} | 0.1 (−0.3, 0.6) | −1.2 (−2.0, −0.3) | 0.2 (-0.4, 0.7) | 1.0 (−0.8, 2.9) | 0.6 (−0.6, 1.7) |

Mean rate of prescriptions^{e}: | |||||

in year 1^{b} | 7.8 | 7.7 | 8.0 | 7.3 | 8.0 |

in year 2 | 8.0 | 7.3 | 8.4 | 7.7 | 8.1 |

change (95% CI)^{c} | 0.2 (−0.1, 0.6) | −0.4 (−1.1, 0.3) | 0.4 (−0.2, 1.0) | 0.4 (−0.4, 1.2) | 0.1 (−0.9, 1.0) |

↵a The highest 2.5% of expenditure values were trimmed at the 97.5 percentile to avoid bias and ensure that assumptions of normality of the statistical models were not violated. All amounts are in US dollars ($).

↵b There were no significant baseline differences between groups with different SDM patterns for any of the outcomes (all

*P*> .05 based on linear regression accounting for the survey design).↵c 95% confidence intervals calculated from linear regression with robust variance estimates accounting for the weighted, clustered, and stratified MEPS survey design.

↵d Rates are per 100 patients per year.

↵e Rates are per patient per year.