TABLE 5

Association of a Medical Home With Health Care Utilization, Child Health, and Health-Promoting Behavior Outcomes Among Children Without Special Health Care Needs by Age Group

VariableChildren Without Special Health Care Needs
Children Aged 0–1 y Children Aged 2–5 y Children Aged 6–11 y Children Aged 12–17 y
% (SE)aOR (95% CI)a% (SE)aOR (95% CI)a% (SE)aOR (95% CI)a% (SE)aOR (95% CI)a
Children With a Medical HomeChildren Without a Medical HomeChildren With a Medical HomeChildren Without a Medical HomeChildren With a Medical HomeChildren Without a Medical HomeChildren With a Medical HomeChildren Without a Medical Home
Health care utilization outcomes
 Preventive visitsb
   ≥196.7 (0.4)91.6 (1.1)1.67 (1.08–2.57)*88.5 (0.5)82.8 (1.0)1.35 (1.12–1.63)*74.0 (0.7)68.7 (1.1)1.24 (1.10–1.41)*77.3 (06)70.3 (0.9)1.38 (1.23–1.55)*
   03.3 (0.4)8.4 (1.1)Reference11.5 (0.5)17.2 (1.0)Reference26.0 (0.7)31.3 (1.1)Reference22.7 (0.6)29.7 (0.9)Reference
 Outpatient sick visits
   ≥169.2 (0.9)75.9 (1.7)0.73 (0.59–0.90)*76.5 (0.7)77.4 (1.3)0.84 (0.71–0.99)*68.8 (0.8)73.8 (1.0)0.73 (0.64–0.83)*57.1 (0.8)64.4 (1.0)0.67 (0.59–0.75)*
   030.8 (0.9)24.1 (1.7)Reference23.5 (0.7)22.6 (1.3)Reference31.2 (0.8)26.2 (1.0)Reference42.9 (0.8)35.6 (1.0)Reference
 ED sick visits
   ≥122.5 (0.9)35.3 (1.8)0.69 (0.56–0.84)*19.3 (0.7)24.4 (1.2)0.76 (0.64–0.89)*12.8 (0.6)19.1 (0.8)0.64 (0.55–0.74)*12.2 (0.5)16.9 (0.7)0.70 (0.60–0.80)*
   077.5 (0.9)64.7 (1.8)Reference80.7 (0.7)75.6 (1.2)Reference87.2 (0.6)80.9 (0.8)Reference87.8 (0.5)83.1 (0.7)Reference
Child health outcomes
 Parental assessment of global health
   Excellent/very good92.9 (0.7)85.0 (1.3)1.44 (1.02–2.04)*93.0 (0.5)87.4 (0.8)1.23 (0.96–1.58)93.2 (0.5)87.7 (0.7)1.33 (1.08–1.65)*92.8 (0.4)86.9 (0.7)1.33 (1.10–1.60)*
   Good/fair/poor7.1 (0.7)15.0 (1.3)Reference7.0 (0.5)12.6 (0.8)Reference6.8 (0.5)12.3 (0.7)Reference7.2 (0.4)13.1 (0.7)Reference
 Missed days of school in the past 12 mo
   >332.8 (0.8)30.6 (0.8)1.07 (0.96–1.19)31.4 (0.8)31.4 (0.8)0.99 (0.89, 1.10)
  ≤367.2 (0.8)69.4 (0.8)Reference69.6 (0.8)68.6 (0.8)Reference
Health-promoting behavior outcomes
 Read to
   Daily44.1 (1.0)36.3 (1.7)1.38 (0.99–1.94)56.8 (0.8)44.3 (1.2)1.78 (1.13–2.79)*
   Sometimes43.2 (1.0)46.3 (1.8)1.17 (0.85–1.63)40.9 (0.8)50.5 (1.2)1.35 (0.86–2.11)
   Never12.7 (0.8)17.5 (1.4)Reference2.3 (0.3)5.1 (0.6)Reference
 Sufficient sleep
   Daily75.9 (0.7)77.1 (0.7)1.00 (0.60–1.69)61.7 (0.8)62.1 (0.8)1.68 (1.23–2.29)*
   Sometimes23.1 (0.7)21.7 (0.7)0.97 (0.57–1.64)35.3 (0.8)33.1 (0.8)1.49 (1.09–2.05)*
   Never1.0 (0.1)1.3 (0.2)Reference3.0 (0.3)4.8 (0.5)Reference
 Helmet usage
   Always53.0 (0.8)43.3 (0.9)1.17 (0.96–1.44)31.8 (0.9)25.9 (0.9)1.19 (1.00–1.42)*
   Usually17.9 (0.6)15.5 (0.6)1.16 (0.91–1.48)13.9 (0.7)12.5 (0.7)0.99 (0.79–1.23)
   Sometimes16.1 (0.6)20.4 (0.7)0.98 (0.78–1.23)19.7 (0.8)20.7 (0.8)1.19 (0.98–1.44)
   Never13.0 (0.6)20.8 (0.7)Reference34.7 (0.8)40.9 (1.0)Reference
 Average school day screen time, h
   <251.4 (0.8)46.0 (0.9)1.14 (1.00–1.30)37.4 (0.8)32.3 (0.8)1.124 (1.00–1.28)
   ≥248.6 (0.8)54.0 (0.9)Reference62.6 (0.8)67.7 (0.8)Reference
 Breastfed ever
   Yes77.3 (0.8)74.9 (1.5)0.98 (0.79–1.22)73.9 (0.7)69.4 (1.1)1.00 (0.85–1.18)
   No22.7 (0.8)25.1 (1.5)Reference26.1 (0.7)30.6 (1.1)Reference
  • a Adjusted for gender, age, race and ethnicity, household income as % of the FPL, highest attained parental education, primary language spoken in the home, current insurance coverage, and family structure.

  • b Medical home status without number of preventive visits in the past 12 months.

  • * Significant at P < .05.