TABLE 4

Effects of Intervention Programs on Parental Quit Rate Stratified According to Child-Related, Intervention-Related, and Design-Related Subgroup

AnalysisRR (CI)P*No. of StudiesNo. of Participants
Age
 Infants (0-1 y)0.99 (0.6, 1.63).9873556
 Preschool (2-4 y)1.14 (0.48, 2.68).7741060
 Children (4-17 y)1.57 (1.14, 2.16).006*113497
Child cohort
 Well1.26 (0.83, 1.92).297105733
 Asthmatic1.20 (1.00, 1.44).055895
Hospital/clinic visit2.21 (1.16, 4.23).023425
Setting
 Well-baby clinic1.46 (0.92, 2.33).1154258
 Hospital1.28 (0.86, 1.90).2251818
 Pediatric clinic1.30 (0.23, 7.40).773800
 Family home1.16 (0.83, 1.63).3971778
Provider
 Nurse1.69 (0.73, 3.89).2261944
 Physician1.04 (0.84, 1.28).7532590
 Research assistant1.63 (1.06, 2.50).0371948
 Clinic staff0.42 (0.09, 2.10).292571
Use of theory in intervention development
 No theory1.23 (0.93, 1.62).1494505
 Theory based1.45 (0.92, 2.30).1192548
Use of medicine
 Yes3.13 (1.19, 8.21).02*2192
 No1.28 (1.00, 1.63).05166861
Length of observation
 <6 mo1.47 (0.59, 3.66).4161091
 6 mo2.74 (0.8, 9.42).1141305
 12 mo1.15 (0.87, 1.52).3383434
 2+ y1.32 (0.82, 2.10).2541821
Primary goal
 Maternal cessation1.69 (1.2, 2.40).003*51903
 Reduction of child exposure1.14 (0.84, 1.55).3981777
 Reduction of child exposure and maternal cessation1.51 (0.73, 3.13).2753373
Study design
 RCT1.40 (1.01, 1.92).04144782
 Quasi-RCT1.74 (0.61, 5.00).32190
 CT1.11 (0.70, 1.75).661575
 Cluster RCT1.13 (0.73, 1.76).5811506
No. of sessions
 12.56 (0.44, 14.78).295892
 3-41.38 (0.84, 2.27).2153466
 >51.16 (0.94, 1.44).1772120
Control group received related intervention
 Yes1.27 (0.91, 1.79).1673396
 No2.25 (1.02, 4.98).0451843
Percentage follow-up
 60-801.07 (0.86, 1.32).5553463
 81-1001.64 (1.12, 2.42).01*133590
Blinding of assessors
 Yes1.56 ([0.87, 2.82).1482684
 No1.11 (0.99, 1.26).0832762
 Not reported1.49 (0.85, 2.59).1671607
  • * P value is significant at the Bonferroni-corrected .05 2-sided level.