TABLE 4

Unadjusted and Adjusted Changes in BRIEF-P Scores at 3 Years of Age With 10-Fold Increases in Creatinine-Standardized Gestational and Childhood Urinary BPA Concentrations

Emotional Control ScaleChange in BRIEF-P Score, Estimate (95% CI)
All, UnadjustedAll, AdjustedGirls, AdjustedaBoys, Adjusteda
Mean gestational BPA level (n = 237)
    Emotional control scale2.9 (−1.7 to 7.4)4.9 (0.5 to 9.3)9.1 (2.8 to 15)1.1 (−5.1 to 7.2)b
    Inhibit scale2.3 (−3.2 to 7.8)4.1 (−1.3 to 9.5)9.3 (1.8 to 17)0.4 (−7.0 to 7.8)b
    Plan/organize scale0.2 (−5.4 to 5.8)1.1 (−4.4 to 6.7)5.4 (−2.5 to 13)−2.2 (−10 to 5.5)
    Shift scale1.4 (−3.6 to 6.4)3.1 (−2.0 to 8.2)5.5 (−1.7 to 13)1.4 (−5.7 to 8.5)
    Working memory scale−0.6 (−6.6 to 5.5)0.6 (−5.4 to 6.5)4.2 (−4.3 to 12)−2.4 (−11 to 5.9)
Mean childhood BPA level (n = 223)
    Emotional control scale3.9 (0.3 to 7.5)2.5 (−1.2 to 6.2)1.6 (−3.4 to 6.7)4.1 (−1.3 to 9.5)
    Inhibit scale1.8 (−2.5 to 6.0)−0.7 (−5.1 to 3.8)−1.2 (−7.1 to 4.7)2.2 (−4.2 to 8.5)
    Plan/organize scale3.7 (−0.7 to 8.0)1.7 (−2.9 to 6.3)1.4 (−4.8 to 7.7)3.3 (−3.3 to 10)
    Shift scale1.7 (−2.2 to 5.6)0.0 (−4.2 to 4.2)0.2 (−5.5 to 5.9)1.0 (−5.1 to 7.1)
    Working memory scale3.3 (−1.4 to 8.0)1.7 (−3.3 to 6.6)1.2 (−5.4 to 7.9)3.5 (−3.7 to 11)
  • Models were adjusted for race (white, black, or other), household income (continuous, in thousands of dollars), education (graduate/professional school, bachelor's degree, some college, high school, or less than high school), marital status (married or unmarried), depressive symptoms during pregnancy (continuous), Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores (continuous), log10-transformed mean gestational serum cotinine concentrations, and log10-transformed mean gestational low-molecular weight urinary phthalate concentrations.

  • a Model includes child gender and a BPA-child gender interaction term.

  • b For gender–BPA level interaction, P < .10.