TABLE 5

Regression-Adjusted Effects of SHCNs on School Outcomes

School OutcomePresence of SHCNsSHCN Profile Types
NoYesNoneMedication OnlyFunctional Limitation, Any CombinationEmotional or Behavioral ServicesOther
Student engagement
    Effort
        Tries to do best at school (1 = never; 5 = always)Reference−0.11 (.002)Reference0.06 (.010)−0.16 (.249)−0.25 (<.001)−0.25 (<.001)
        Prepared for class (1 = never; 5 = always)Reference−.08 (.019)Reference0.05 (.003)−0.22 (.098)−.12 (<.001)−.15 (.315)
Interest
        Look forward to school (1 = never; 5 = always)Reference−0.13 (.087)Reference−0.18 (.001)−0.28 (.003)−0.01 (.903)−0.05 (.709)
        Felt bored in school (1 = never; 5 = always)Reference0.09 (.017)Reference−0.11 (.201)0.25 (<.001)0.25 (<.001)0.00 (.982)
    Security
        Feel physically safe in school (1 = not at all; 5 = extremely)Reference−0.14 (.127)Reference−0.06 (.592)−0.26 (.029)−0.19 (.010)−0.05 (.766)
        Feel emotionally safe in school (1 = not at all; 5 = extremely)Reference−0.05 (.273)Reference0.09 (.013)−0.18 (.116)−0.10 (.002)−0.23 (<.001)
    Attention
        Trouble paying attention (1 = never; 5 = always)Reference0.17 (.013)Reference−0.17 (.119)0.42 (<.001)0.43 (<.001)0.23 (.218)
    Motivation
        Getting good grades matters (1 = not at all; 5 = extremely)Reference−0.17 (<.001)Reference−0.08 (.304)−0.20 (.007)−0.25 (.012)−0.17 (<.001)
Behavioral threats to achievement
    Disruptive behaviors
        Lied or cheated at school (1 = never; 5 = past week)Reference0.09 (.009)Reference−0.07 (.188)−0.01 (.915)0.31 (<.001)0.16 (.028)
        Carried a weapon such as a gun, razor, or big knife, for protection at school (1 = never; 5 = past week), sixth graders onlyReference0.11 (<.001)Reference0.03 (.277)−0.04 (.120)0.18 (<.001)0.11 (.054)
    Bullying
        Picked on other kids at school (1 = never; 5 = past week)Reference−0.08 (.284)Reference−0.132 (.359)−0.147 (<.001)0.01 (.863)−0.03 (.787)
        Physically attacked someone at school (1 = never; 5 = past week)Reference0.07 (.033)Reference−0.04 (.118)0.09 (.500)0.23 (<.001)−0.08 (.496)
    Bullying victim
        Afraid of other girls and boys (1 = never; 5 = always)Reference0.18 (<.001)Reference0.08 (<.001)0.21 (.127)0.29 (<.001)0.22 (.006)
        Other girls and boys made fun of you (1 = never; 5 = always)Reference0.23 (<.001)Reference0.02 (.661)0.27 (.005)0.52 (<.001)0.14 (.567)
        Other girls and boys bullied you (1 = never; 5 = always)Reference0.21 (<.001)Reference0.02 (.831)0.44 (<.001)0.37 (<.001)0.02 (.850)
Academic achievement
        Grade-point average, verbal and math combined (range: 0–4)Reference−0.19 (<.001)Reference0.00 (.962)−0.05 (.788)−0.48 (<.001)−0.41 (<.001)
        Standardized achievement test, verbal and math combined (mean: 100, SD: 20)Reference−3.73 (<.001)Reference1.07 (.152)−5.72 (<.001)−7.35 (<.001)−7.77 (<.001)
        Parental-assessed achievement scale (1 = low; 5 = high)Reference−0.36 (<.001)Reference−0.02 (.858)−0.39 (.012)−0.72 (<.001)−0.48 (<.001)
  • Multivariable regression adjustment was conducted using the generalized estimating equation to account for clustering of students within schools. Values in the cells are β-coefficients and represent the change in the outcome associated with the independent variable; P values are presented in parentheses next to the cell values. Only those outcomes that showed significant effects (P < .01) in multivariable analyses are shown in the table. Controlling variables included grade, gender, school, race, maternal education, and family income. Values in bold type are significant.