TABLE 2

Comparison of the Results Between Very Preterm Adolescents and Term Control Children on Tests of Cognition and Language

PretermTermAdjusted Mean Difference (95% CI)
nMean (SD)Impairment <2 SDs, n (%)nMean (SD)Impairment <2 SDs, n (%)
WISC-III
    Full-scale IQ32687 (19)51 (16)99104 (16)2 (2)−13.3 (−19.0 to −7.5)a
    Verbal IQ32789 (19)39 (12)99103 (15)3 (3)−9.4 (−15.1 to −3.7)a
    Performance IQ33087 (19)52 (16)99104 (17)0−15.5 (−21.6 to −9.4)a
    Verbal comprehension32691 (18)99103 (15)−8.0 (−13.3 to −2.6)a
    Perceptual organization32989 (19)99104 (17)−14.3 (−20.3 to −8.2)a
    Freedom of distractibility32589 (18)99100 (15)−8.6 (−14.3 to −2.9)a
    Processing speed32093 (21)97107 (16)−13.7 (−20.2 to −7.3)a
    Vocabulary subtest raw score32738 (12)9943 (8)−2.7 (−6.1 to 0.7)
    Block-design subtest raw score33044 (17)9955 (10)−8.9 (−14.1 to −3.7)a
PPVT-R33095 (24)42 (13)101106 (21)3 (3)−5.5 (−12.3 to 1.3)
CTOPP composite scores
    Rapid naming30696 (23)37 (12)10299 (14)3 (3)−3.9 (−10.9 to 3.2)
    Phonological awareness25182 (16)46 (18)9491 (13)2 (2)−5.1 (−10.1 to −0.1)b
CTOPP subtest
    Rapid digit naming3099 (4)10210 (2)−0.5 (−1.6 to 0.7)
    Rapid letter naming30710 (4)10210 (3)−0.9 (−2.2 to 0.4)
    Nonword repetition3068 (3)1029 (2)−0.4 (−1.2 to 0.5)
    Phoneme reversal2527 (3)949 (3)−0.7 (−1.7 to 0.3)
    Blending nonwords2518 (3)949 (2)−0.5 (−1.5 to 0.5)
    Segmented nonwords2516 (3)948 (2)−1.1 (−2.0 to −0.2)b
TOWRE
    Sight word efficiency30889 (15)25 (8)10194 (10)2 (2)−2.8 (−7.3 to 1.7)
    Phonemic decoding30888 (16)42 (14)10194 (13)2 (2)−5.6 (−10.5 to −0.7)b
  • Adjustment for gender, maternal education, minority status, and single parent household. CTOPP indicates Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, TOWRE, Test of Word Reading Efficiency.

  • a P < .005.

  • b P < .05.