TABLE 4

Bivariate Associations Between SHCNs and School Outcomes

School OutcomePresence of SHCNSHCN Profile Types
NoYesNoneMedication OnlyFunctional Limitation, Any CombinationEmotional or Behavioral ServicesOther
Attendance
    Days absent during school year8.510.5a8.58.812.4a11.5b9.9
Student engagement effort
    Does extra schoolwork (1 = never; 5 = always)2.62.62.62.52.62.52.6
    Tries to do best at school (1 = never; 5 = always)4.64.5b4.64.74.44.4a4.4
    Prepared for class (1 = never; 5 = always)4.34.24.34.44.14.14.1
Interest
    Excited by work in school (1 = never; 5 = always)2.92.92.92.92.83.02.8
    Interested in work at school (1 = never; 5 = always)3.23.13.23.13.03.13.0
    Look forward to school (1 = never; 5 = always)3.33.13.33.03.03.23.1
    Felt bored in school (1 = never; 5 = always)3.33.53.33.33.63.7b3.4
Security
    Feel physically safe in school (1 = never; 5 = always)4.24.0b4.24.13.94.04.1
    Feel emotionally safe in school (1 = never; 5 = always)3.93.83.94.03.73.83.6
Attention
    Trouble paying attention (1 never–5 always)2.42.6a2.42.32.9b2.9a2.6
Motivation
    Getting good grades matters (1 = not at all; 5 = extremely)4.74.5a4.74.64.54.4a4.5
Behavioral threats to achievement
    Disruptive behaviors
        Got in trouble at school (1 = never; 5 = past week)2.93.02.92.83.03.4b2.8
        Broke a rule at school (1 = never; 5 = past week)2.52.62.52.42.72.82.8
        Destroyed something belonging to someone else at school (1 = never; 5 = past week)1.41.31.41.31.31.41.5
        Lied or cheated at school (1 = never; 5 = past week)1.61.71.61.51.61.9b1.9
        Carried a weapon such as a gun, razor, or big knife, for protection at school (1 = never; 5 = past week), sixth graders only1.01.11.01.21.01.21.1
    Bullying
        Picked on other kids at school (1 = never; 5 = past week)1.81.71.81.61.71.81.9
        Told someone at school you would hurt them (1 = never; 5 = past week)1.61.71.61.61.51.91.7
        Physically attacked someone at school (1 = never; 5 = past week)1.41.61.41.41.61.8a1.4
    Bullying victim
        Afraid of other girls and boys (1 = never; 5 = always)1.51.71.51.61.71.81.7
        Other girls and boys made fun of you (1 = never; 5 = always)2.02.3b2.02.02.32.6a2.2
        Other girls and boys bullied you (1 = never; 5 = always)1.51.7b1.51.52.0a1.9a1.5
Academic achievement
        Grade point average, verbal and math combined (range: 0–4)3.12.9a3.13.13.02.5a2.7b
        Standardized achievement test, verbal and math combined (mean: 100, SD: 20)103.998.7a103.9105.095.7a93.9a96.0
        Parental-assessed achievement scale (1 = low; 5 = high)3.93.5a3.93.93.4a3.0a3.4b
  • Significance testing was done using analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer test for multiple comparisons.

  • Statistically significant associations at aP < .001 and bP < .01 are shown in bold.