TABLE 6

Long and Short Breastfeeding Durations According to Maternity Leave Characteristics, Maternal Characteristics, Child/Delivery Characteristics, and Interpersonal/Family/Community Characteristicsa

CharacteristicsAny BreastfeedingPredominant Breastfeeding
>6 mo (%)P>3 mo (%)P
Maternity leave characteristics
    Total maternity leave in weeks.29.15
        1–633.524.6
        7–1234.026.8
        ≥1338.733.2
        Did not take maternity leave39.423.9
    Paid maternity leave in weeks.41.30
        036.025.1
        1–635.128.8
        ≥734.028.4
        Did not take maternity leave39.423.9
    Time of return to work.0001.01
        1–632.318.3
        7–1230.123.9
        ≥1338.433.9
        Not yet returned to work46.729.5
Maternal characteristics
    Maternal race/ethnicity<.0001.02
        White, non–Hispanic39.329.3
        Black, non-Hispanic22.820.3
        Hispanic33.820.9
        Other, non-Hispanic40.927.9
    Maternal age, y<.0001.06
        15–1918.313.9
        20–2426.319.6
        25–2934.029.5
        30–3441.828.4
        ≥3547.530.2
    Marital status<.0001.0001
        Married41.429.6
        Single23.318.7
    Maternal education<.0001<.0001
        <12th grade26.818.8
        High school diploma/equivalent26.618.1
        Vocational/technical or some college34.825.7
        Bachelor's degree or higher48.537.2
    Income status<.0001<.0001
        <185% FPL29.618.9
        ≥185% FPL40.330.9
    Country of birthb.07.68
        US/US territories36.426.8
        Foreign country40.426.0
        Missing26.622.6
    Smoking status in the last 3 mo of pregnancy.0003<.0001
        Yes20.210.9
        No38.027.9
Child/delivery characteristics
    Birth weight<.0001.001
        Normal (≥2500 g)37.226.9
        Low (<2500 g)24.116.7
    Mode of delivery.13.34
        Vaginal37.827.1
        Cesarean33.424.1
    Birth order.34.96
        136.626.6
        234.426.4
        ≥339.625.8
    Health care professional advice about breastfeeding.004.97
        Yes35.026.5
        No46.826.3
Interpersonal/family/community characteristics
    Separation from child for ≥1 wk<.0001.07
        Yes11.718.5
        No37.826.8
    Child care arrangements<.0001.31
        Parental care47.129.1
        In-home care31.725.7
        Out-of-home care27.924.4
    WIC participation by mother or child within the last 12 mo<.0001<.0001
        Yes25.818.4
        No44.032.7
    Region.01.38
        Northeast37.725.0
        Midwest36.426.5
        South31.223.2
        West42.731.6
    Urbanicityc.51.53
        Urban, inside urban area37.327.1
        Urban, inside urban cluster33.226.1
        Rural34.822.8
  • Weight variable is W1R0. Percentages are row percentages.

  • a Sample restricted to singletons whose biological mothers were the respondent at the 9-month wave and who initiated breastfeeding and worked in the 12 months before delivery (n = 4200).

  • b The country of birth variable has a large number of missing observations because this was a variable ascertained at the 2-year interview by which time some participants had been lost to follow-up. The missing category is included in the analysis by applying the 9-month weight (W1R0).

  • c Urban/rural location of interview.

  • SOURCE: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, ECLS-B Longitudinal 9 Month-Preschool Restricted Use data file.