TABLE 4

Breastfeeding Initiation Among Mothers Who Worked Before Delivery, According to Maternity Leave Characteristics, Maternal Characteristics, Child/Delivery Characteristics and Interpersonal/Family/Community Characteristics (N = 6150)a

CharacteristicsUnweighted n% Initiating BreastfeedingP
Main independent variables
    Maternity leave length
        Total maternity leave in weeks.0004
            1–6125064.6
            7–12185073.3
            ≥1385074.2
            Did not take maternity leave220066.9
            Missing50
        Paid maternity leave in weeks.01
            0135066.9
            1–6130070.5
            ≥7130074.8
            Did not take maternity leave220066.9
            Missing0b
        Time of return to work.05
            1–6115063.3
            7–12210070.4
            ≥13135070.2
            Not yet returned to workc150071.9
            Missing50
Control variables
    Maternal characteristics
        Race/ethnicity<.0001
            White, non-Hispanic280071.1
            Black, non-Hispanic105051.0
            Hispanic95076.8
            Other, non-Hispanic130074.1
            Missing0b
        Age, y<.0001
            15–1935057.2
            20–24160060.2
            25–29150070.3
            30–34155074.7
            ≥35110076.9
        Marital status<.0001
            Married400075.5
            Single215057.1
            Missing0b
        Education<.0001
            ≤12th grade95052.3
            High school/equivalent180059.5
            Vocational/technical or some college175071.3
            Bachelor's degree or higher165087.4
        Income status<.0001
            <185% FPL280059.3
            ≥185% FPL335076.8
        Country of birthd<.0001
            US/US territories445067.1
            Foreign country125084.5
            Missing50066.1
        Smoking last 3 mo of pregnancy<.0001
            Yes75049.8
            No540072.0
            Missing0b
    Child/delivery characteristics
        Birth weight.001
            Normal (≥2500 g)490070.1
            Low (<2500 g)120059.2
            Missing0b
        Mode of delivery.23
            Vaginal435070.3
            Cesarean175066.9
            Missing50
        Birth order.0003
            1275074.5
            2195067.7
            ≥3140025.5
            Missing50
        Health care professional advice about breastfeeding.26
            Yes530069.0
            No75073.1
            Missing100
    Interpersonal/family/community characteristics
        Separation from child for ≥1 wk.02
            Yes40058.7
            No575070.1
        Child care arrangements.10
            Parental care250072.1
            In-home care105065.1
            Out-of-home care260068.5
            Missing0b
        WIC participation by mother or child in the last 12 mo<.0001
            Yes315059.0
            No295079.3
            Missing0b
        Region
            Northeast95066.7<.0001
            Midwest145068.8
            South215063.4
            West155082.7
        Urbanicitye<.0001
            Urban, inside urban area445072.6
            Urban, inside urban cluster75064.9
            Rural95057.9
  • Weight variable is W1R0. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding. Unweighted sample sizes have been rounded to the nearest 50.

  • a Sample restricted to singletons whose biological mothers were the respondent at the 9-month wave and worked in the 12 months before delivery.

  • b Estimate rounds to 0.

  • c Not yet returned to work by the 9-month interview.

  • d The country of birth variable has a large number of missing observations because this was a variable ascertained at the 2-year interview by which time some participants had been lost to follow-up. The missing category is included in the analysis by applying the 9-month weight (W1R0).

  • e Urban/rural location of interview.

  • SOURCE: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, ECLS-B Longitudinal 9 Month-Preschool Restricted Use data file.