Breastfeeding Initiation Among Mothers Who Worked Before Delivery, According to Maternity Leave Characteristics, Maternal Characteristics, Child/Delivery Characteristics and Interpersonal/Family/Community Characteristics (N = 6150)a

CharacteristicsUnweighted n% Initiating BreastfeedingP
Main independent variables
    Maternity leave length
        Total maternity leave in weeks.0004
            Did not take maternity leave220066.9
        Paid maternity leave in weeks.01
            Did not take maternity leave220066.9
        Time of return to work.05
            Not yet returned to workc150071.9
Control variables
    Maternal characteristics
            White, non-Hispanic280071.1
            Black, non-Hispanic105051.0
            Other, non-Hispanic130074.1
        Age, y<.0001
        Marital status<.0001
            ≤12th grade95052.3
            High school/equivalent180059.5
            Vocational/technical or some college175071.3
            Bachelor's degree or higher165087.4
        Income status<.0001
            <185% FPL280059.3
            ≥185% FPL335076.8
        Country of birthd<.0001
            US/US territories445067.1
            Foreign country125084.5
        Smoking last 3 mo of pregnancy<.0001
    Child/delivery characteristics
        Birth weight.001
            Normal (≥2500 g)490070.1
            Low (<2500 g)120059.2
        Mode of delivery.23
        Birth order.0003
        Health care professional advice about breastfeeding.26
    Interpersonal/family/community characteristics
        Separation from child for ≥1 wk.02
        Child care arrangements.10
            Parental care250072.1
            In-home care105065.1
            Out-of-home care260068.5
        WIC participation by mother or child in the last 12 mo<.0001
            Urban, inside urban area445072.6
            Urban, inside urban cluster75064.9
  • Weight variable is W1R0. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding. Unweighted sample sizes have been rounded to the nearest 50.

  • a Sample restricted to singletons whose biological mothers were the respondent at the 9-month wave and worked in the 12 months before delivery.

  • b Estimate rounds to 0.

  • c Not yet returned to work by the 9-month interview.

  • d The country of birth variable has a large number of missing observations because this was a variable ascertained at the 2-year interview by which time some participants had been lost to follow-up. The missing category is included in the analysis by applying the 9-month weight (W1R0).

  • e Urban/rural location of interview.

  • SOURCE: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, ECLS-B Longitudinal 9 Month-Preschool Restricted Use data file.