TABLE 1

Total Maternity Leave Length According to Maternal Characteristics, Child/Delivery Characteristics and Interpersonal/Family/Community Characteristics (N = 6150)a

CharacteristicsUnweighted nTotal %Length of Maternity Leave (%)P
1–6 wk7–12 wk≥13 wkDid Not Take (%)
All women20.231.113.934.7
Maternal characteristics
    Race/ethnicity.03
        White, non-Hispanic280061.262.466.062.455.8
        Black, non-Hispanic105014.514.411.714.916.7
        Hispanic95018.616.816.716.722.2
        Other, non-Hispanic13005.76.45.66.05.3
        Missing0b
    Age, y<.0001
        15-193505.23.21.82.310.5
        20–24160024.425.117.115.634.2
        25–29150027.033.329.721.623.1
        30–34155026.025.829.834.119.7
        ≥35110017.412.621.626.412.6
    Marital status<.0001
        Married400067.268.875.675.555.4
        Single215032.831.224.424.544.6
        Missing0b
    Education<.0001
        ≤12th grade95014.010.47.28.724.1
        High school or equivalent180029.833.925.121.934.7
        Vocational/technical or some college175029.532.332.729.824.8
        Bachelor's degree or higher165026.823.435.039.716.4
    Income status<.0001
        <185% FPL280042.241.728.529.159.8
        ≥185% FPL335057.958.371.571.040.3
    Country of birthc.26
        US/US territories445079.582.279.883.776.1
        Foreign country125013.912.313.411.016.7
        Missing4506.55.66.95.47.2
    Smoking in last 3 mo of pregnancy<.0001
        Yes75011.512.17.19.215.9
        No540088.587.992.990.884.1
        Missing0b
Child/delivery characteristics
    Birth weight.01
        Normal (≥2500 g)490094.294.795.294.493.0
        Low (<2500 g)12005.85.34.85.67.0
        Missing0b
    Mode of delivery.10
        Vaginal435074.478.371.872.175.3
        Cesarean175025.621.728.227.924.7
        Missing50
    Birth order.32
        1275044.841.947.443.145.1
        2195031.932.132.334.730.3
        ≥3140023.326.120.322.324.6
        Missing50
    Health care professional advice about breastfeeding.37
        Yes530087.788.387.085.089.0
        No75012.311.713.015.011.0
        Missing100
Interpersonal/family/community characteristics
    Separation from child for ≥1 week.29
        Yes4005.77.75.35.35.2
        No575094.392.394.794.794.8
    Child care arrangements<.0001
        Parental care250040.434.725.628.361.5
        In-home care105014.914.116.318.512.9
        Out-of-home care260044.751.258.153.225.6
        Missing0b
    WIC participation by mother or child in last 12 mo<.0001
        Yes315048.547.535.036.366.1
        No295051.552.565.063.733.9
        Missing0b
    Region<.0001
        Northeast95018.015.217.827.915.9
        Midwest145023.724.025.821.522.5
        South215036.741.236.426.638.5
        West155021.619.720.024.123.1
    Urbanicityd.03
        Urban, inside urban area445072.968.273.379.372.5
        Urban, inside urban cluster75011.713.311.59.012.1
        Rural95015.418.615.211.715.4
  • Length of leave is given in weeks. Weight variable is W1R0. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding. Unweighted sample sizes have been rounded to the nearest 50. Column percentages are shown for the control variables.

  • a Sample restricted to singletons whose biological mothers were the respondent at the 9-month wave and worked in the 12 months before delivery.

  • b Estimate rounds to 0.

  • c The country of birth variable has a large number of missing observations because it was ascertained at the 2-year interview, by which time some participants had been lost to follow-up. The missing category is included in the analysis by applying the 9-month weight (W1R0).

  • d Urban/rural location of interview.

  • SOURCE: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, ECLS-B Longitudinal 9 Month-Preschool Restricted Use data file.