TABLE 3

Crude ORs and aORsa for the Associations Between Selected Maternal, Paternal, and Infant Characteristics and Early ASD Diagnoses, 2001–2005 Massachusetts Birth Cohorts

Crude OR95% CIaORa95% CI
Maternal characteristics
    Race/ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic whiteReferenceReference
        Non-Hispanic black0.98(0.86–1.12)1.18(1.00–1.40)
        Hispanic0.76(0.68–0.86)1.25(1.06–1.46)
        Other0.75(0.65–0.86)1.01(0.85–1.20)
    Age, y
        <200.66(0.53–0.81)0.64(0.47–0.87)
        20–240.84(0.74–0.96)0.83(0.70–0.98)
        25–29ReferenceReference
        30–341.26(1.14–1.39)1.27(1.13–1.42)
        35–391.38(1.24–1.54)1.39(1.21–1.59)
        40–441.59(1.34–1.88)1.52(1.23–1.88)
        ≥453.27(2.03–5.24)2.03(1.11–3.69)
Education
        Some high school0.68(0.58–0.79)0.91(0.75–1.11)
        High school graduateReferenceReference
        Some college1.16(1.04–1.28)1.01(0.90–1.13)
        ≥4 years of college1.09(1.00–1.19)0.85(0.75–0.96)
    Marital status
        MarriedReferenceReference
        Not married0.84(0.77–0.91)1.07(0.95–1.21)
    Primary language
        EnglishReferenceReference
        Not English0.60(0.52–0.69)0.68(0.56–0.81)
    Nativity
        US bornReferenceReference
        Foreign born0.76(0.69–0.82)0.82(0.72–0.93)
    Parity
        1ReferenceReference
        20.95(0.88–1.03)0.84(0.77–0.91)
        ≥30.79(0.71–0.87)0.63(0.56–0.70)
    Delivery payer source
        PrivateReferenceReference
        Public0.79(0.73–0.86)1.09(0.96–1.23)
        Other0.78(0.54–1.13)0.98(0.66–1.45)
Paternal characteristics
    Age, y
        <200.70(0.50–0.97)0.80(0.54–1.19)
        20–240.78(0.66–0.92)0.83(0.68–1.01)
        25–29ReferenceReference
        30–341.13(1.01–1.27)1.04(0.92–1.19)
        35–391.25(1.11–1.41)1.10(0.96–1.27)
        40–441.35(1.17–1.56)1.14(0.96–1.35)
        ≥451.52(1.25–1.84)1.22(0.98–1.53)
    Education
        Some high school0.71(0.63–0.81)0.91(0.77–1.09)
        High school graduateReferenceReference
        Some college1.00(0.89–1.11)0.95(0.85–1.07)
        ≥4 years of college1.00(0.92–1.09)0.93(0.83–1.04)
Infant characteristics
    Infant gender
        Male4.42(4.03–4.85)4.49(4.06–4.95)
        FemaleReferenceReference
    Birth weight
        ≥2500 gReferenceReference
        <2500 g (LBW)1.74(1.56–1.95)1.26(1.07–1.47)
    Plurality
        SingletonReferenceReference
        Twin or higher order2.44(2.17–2.75)1.90(1.63–2.21)
    Prematurity
        Term (≥37 wk)ReferenceReference
        Preterm (<37 wk)1.69(1.53–1.86)1.18(1.04–1.35)
  • a Adjusted for all other variables simultaneously.