TABLE 1

Selected Maternal, Paternal, and Infant Characteristics of Children With or Without Early Diagnoses of ASDs, 2001–2005 Massachusetts Birth Cohorts

Maternal and Infant CharacteristicsChildren With Early Diagnosis of ASDsChildren Without Early Diagnosis of ASDsPaCumulative Incidenceb
n%n%
Total3013100385 63110077.5
Maternal characteristics
    Race/ethnicity<.001
        Non-Hispanic white226775.3274 39671.281.9
        Non-Hispanic black2367.829 1127.680.4
        Hispanic30110.047 88812.462.5
        Other2086.933 7718.861.2
    Age, y<.001
        <201043.523 1226.044.8
        20–2433411.157 94815.057.3
        25–2961220.389 35423.268.0
        30–34109536.3126 78832.985.6
        35–3968222.672 12818.793.7
        40–441685.615 4704.0107.4
        ≥45180.68050.2218.7
    Education<.001
        Some high school2036.739 85510.350.7
        High school graduate73024.297 08925.274.6
        Some college73124.384 05221.886.2
        ≥4 years of college134944.8164 61942.781.3
    Marital status<.001
        Married226775.2277 16471.981.1
        Not married74624.8108 43428.168.3
    Primary language<.001
        English280293.0342 26188.981.2
        Not English2107.042 96011.248.6
    Nativity<.001
        US born235378.1281 08972.983.0
        Foreign born66021.9104 51227.162.8
    Parity<.001
        1140946.8168 88243.982.7
        2105835.2133 64934.778.5
        ≥354118.082 28821.465.3
    Delivery payer source<.001
        Private213670.9253 56265.883.4
        Public84928.2127 58933.166.1
        Other280.942661.165.2
Paternal characteristics
    Race/ethnicity<.001
        Non-Hispanic white222277.6265 02373.683.1
        Non-Hispanic black2227.828 3767.977.6
        Hispanic1404.922 6316.361.5
        Other2799.843 98412.263.0
    Age, y<.001
        <20381.476932.349.2
        20–241846.833 4379.954.7
        25–2944516.562 91018.670.2
        30–3487532.4109 23032.279.5
        35–3971626.581 06223.987.6
        40–4431011.532 4299.694.7
        ≥451334.912 3853.7106.3
    Education<.001
        Some high school34711.559 51715.558.0
        High school graduate89229.6109 04728.381.1
        Some college50116.661 54816.080.7
        ≥4 years of college127042.2154 62640.281.5
Infant characteristics
    Infant gender<.001
        Male247282.0196 00850.8124.5
        Female54118.0189 60749.228.5
    Birth weight<.001
        ≥2500 g265388.2357 42992.973.7
        <2500 g (LBW)35611.827 4967.1127.8
    Plurality<.001
        Singleton270289.7368 24695.572.8
        Twin or higher order31110.317 3694.5175.9
    Prematurity<.001
        Term (≥37 wk)252083.8345 21189.772.5
        Preterm (<37 wk)48716.239 49810.3121.8
  • Missing values were excluded from the tables and from χ2 calculations.

  • a χ2 Test of the difference in distribution for each independent variable between children with and without ASDs.

  • b Cumulative incidence equals the number of early ASD diagnoses per 10 000 births in the study population.