APPENDIX 2

Grades of Recommendations

GradeUS Preventive Services Task Force63Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care64
AHigh certainty that the net benefit is substantialGood evidence to recommend
BHigh certainty that the net benefit is moderate or there is moderate certainty that the net benefit is moderate to substantial.Fair evidence to recommend
CRecommends against routinely providing the service. There may be considerations that support providing the service in an individual patient. At least moderate certainty that the net benefit is small.Existing evidence is conflicting and does not allow to make a recommendation for or against; however, other factors may influence decision-making.
DRecommends against the service. Moderate or high certainty that the service has no net benefit or that the harms outweigh the benefits.Fair evidence to recommend against the action.
ICurrent evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms. Balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined.Insufficient evidence (in quantity or quality) to make a recommendation; however, other factors may influence decision-making.