APPENDIX 1

Levels of Evidence and Grade of Recommendations for Individual-Level “Clinical/Prevention” Recommendations

RecommendationUS Preventive Services Task Force63Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care64
GradeLevel of CertaintyGradeLevel of Evidence
Use motivational interviewing and anticipatory guidance on oral hygiene and diet for the parents and caregivers of infants and childrenBModerateBII-3
Promote the supervised use of fluoridated toothpaste for all Indigenous and other high-risk children after the first tooth has erupted (“smear” of toothpaste for infants and pea-sized amount for children)AHighAI
Community health nurses, family physicians, or pediatricians should perform oral health screening during child health assessments and provide referrals as needed to dental health providersBModerateBII-3
Provide women with preconception and prenatal screening for oral health, anticipatory guidance for oral health and hygiene, and referral for dental care if requiredBModerateBI
Ensure that all Indigenous children have access to (1) the series of fluoride varnish and (2) an assessment to determine the need for sealant placement on deep grooves and fissuresAModerateAII-1
AHighAI