TABLE 3

Effect of Early Childhood Stimulation on IQ, Educational Achievement, General Knowledge, and Psychological Well-being at Age 22 Y

Resident in JamaicaTotal Sample
StimulationSupplementationStimulationSupplementation
β95% CIPβ95% CIPβ95% CIPβ95% CIP
IQ
    Fullscale6.72.2–11.2.0041.6−2.9–6.0.486.32.2–10.4.003.4−2.7–5.5.49
    Performance5.60.9–10.3.0201.4−3.2–6.0.556.01.7–10.3.0071.7−2.6–6.0.44
    Verbal6.72.3–11.0.0031.5−2.8–5.8.505.61.6–9.6.0060.9−3.1–4.9.65
Educational achievement
    Maths (log)0.280.06–0.49.0120.01−0.20–0.22.940.250.05–0.45.014−0.02−0.22–0.17.83
    Reading (log)0.270.07–0.47.0090.11−0.09–0.30.280.270.09–0.44.0040.08−0.10–0.25.40
    Highest grade level0.480.04–0.92.033−0.15−0.59–0.28.490.35−0.06–0.76.09−0.17−0.58–0.24.41
    No. secondary level examination passesa1.030.17–1.89.019−0.26−0.99–0.47.490.82−0.09–1.72.08−0.21−1.02–0.59.60
General knowledge3.51.1–5.8.0050.24−2.1–2.6.84
Psychological functioning
    Anxiety−2.2−5.6–1.2.20−0·4−3.7–2·9.80−1.4−4.6–1.9.40−2.8−6.0–0.5.10
    Depression (sqrt)−0.42−0.75–−0.08.016−0.15−0.48–0.18.38−0.35−0.67–−0.04.030−0.22−0.54–0.09.16
    Social inhibition−1.5−3.0–−0.06.0420.28−1.2–1.7.70−1.4−2.8–−0.00.050−0.16−1.5–1.2.82
  • Weighted multiple regression analyses: Variables were entered in all regressions: stimulation; supplementation; housing; and maternal education on enrollment. CI indicates confidence interval. β is the regression coefficient.

  • a Count data regression (poisson).