TABLE 2

Unadjusted IQ, Educational Tests, General Knowledge, and Psychological Measures at Age 22 Y

Control (n = 26)Supplement (n = 26)Stimulation (n = 24)Both (n = 29)ANOVAa
FP
IQ (WAIS), mean (SD)
    Full scale70.5 (8.9)73.4 (11.8)77.6 (12.0)75.7 (11.1)4.76.031
    Performance73.5 (8.8)77.4 (12.1)81.0 (12.4)79.2 (11.1)4.56.035
    Verbal72.3 (10.3)74.0 (10.6)78.0 (11.8)76.3 (10.4)3.68.058
Educational achievement
    Mathematics, mean (SD)3.4 (1.8)3.7 (2.2)4.9 (3.1)4.6 (3.1)4.43.038
    Reading, mean (SD)3.9 (2.4)4.8 (3.0)5.7 (3.4)5.1 (2.6)3.41.068
    Highest grade level, mean (SD)10.5 (0.9)10.3 (1.3)10.9 (1.1)10.6 (0.7)2.34.13
    Secondary level examination passes, n (%)
        1–32 (7.7)4 (15.4)4 (16.7)1 (3.4)1.86.39b
        4–82 (7.7)3 (11.5)6 (25.0)4 (13.8)
General knowledge, mean (SD)14.9 (5.8)14.7 (6.1)17.0 (6.4)17.8 (4.7)4.62.034
Psychological functioning, mean (SD)
    Anxiety46.8 (7.3)44.5 (10.6)44.8 (7.6)43.6 (6.3)0.88.35
    Depression8.5 (4.9)7.7 (4.9)6.5 (4.6)6.1 (4.7)3.78.055
    Social inhibition6.2 (3.8)6.1 (4.2)5.1 (3.6)4.9 (2.3)2.59.11
  • ANOVA indicates analysis of variance.

  • a ANOVA with stimulation and supplementation as factors. Values are presented for stimulation only as none of the analyses for supplementation approached significance (all P > .2).

  • b χ2 analysis.