TABLE 1

Characteristics of Participants (Residents and Emigrants) Tested at Age 22 Y on Enrollment and Follow-up

Control (n = 26)Supplement (n = 26)Stimulation (n = 24)Both (n = 29)P, ANOVAa
StimulationSupplement
Enrollment
    Girls, n (%)12 (46.2)11 (42.3)12 (50.0)13 (44.8).76.65
    Height-for-age (z score)−2.90 (0.59)−2.84 (0.66)−2.89 (0.45)−3.09 (0.78).34.60
    Age, mo, mean (SD)19.1 (4.8)18.7 (3.8)18.8 (4.6)19.0 (3.8).99.89
    Developmental quotient, mean (SD)95.7 (9.7)98.5 (8.8)101.0 (10.6)97.9 (7.2).19.93
    Housing,b mean (SD)7.8 (1.8)7.3 (1.8)7.6 (1.0)6.8 (1.6).27.040
    HOME, mean (SD)18.4 (4.9)15.9 (4.3)16.0 (4.3)16.1 (3.9).21.18
    Mothers PPVT, mean (SD)82.4 (18.9)87.3 (18.8)87.7 (20.9)86.0 (22.4).62.68
    Mothers age 19 or younger, n (%)10 (38.5)3 (11.5)6 (25.0)7 (24.1).96.10
    Mothers' education: secondary exams,cn (%)6 (23.1)5 (19.2)2 (8.3)1 (3.4).020.44
Follow-up
    Age, y, mean (SD)22.7 (0.5)22.7 (0.4)22.8 (0.4)22.7 (0.4).38.82
    Height, cm, mean (SD)168.7 (9.5)169.1 (9.2)167.4 (9.9)166.4 (7.9).26.88
    Housing,d mean (SD)−0.12 (0.99)−0.33 (1.07)−0.04 (1.14)0.26 (0.84).09.84
    Migrant, n (%)2 (7.7)1 (3.8)5 (20.8)6 (20.7).024.85
  • ANOVA indicates analysis of variance; HOME, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment; PPVT, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test.

  • a ANOVA with stimulation and supplementation as factors or χ2 for categorical variables.

  • b Sum of ratings of water, toilet, possessions, and crowding (reverse-coded) as used during the original study when information on only 4 possessions was collected.

  • c Mother passed grade 9 achievement test or “O”-level examinations.

  • d Score derived from factor analysis of water, toilet, possessions, and crowding.