TABLE 4

Characteristics of Infants with Early-Onset Infections (All Pathogens, GBS, and E coli) and Their Mothers

Infant Characteristics, n (%)aAll Patients (N = 389)Preterm (22–36 wk) With GBS or E coliTerm (37+ wk) With GBS or E coliOverall With GBS or E coli
GBS (n = 43)E coli (n = 87)GBS (n = 117)E coli (n = 20)GBS (n = 160)E coli (n = 107)P, Unadjusted (Adjusted)b
Birth weight, g<.001 (.4)
    401–1500142 (37%)27 (63)66 (76)0 (0)0 (0)27 (17)66 (62)
    1501–250051 (13%)11 (26)20 (23)3 (3)0 (0)14 (9)20 (19)
    2501+196 (50%)5 (12)1 (1)114 (97)20 (100)119 (74)21 (20)
Gender.2 (.1)
    M205 (53%)22 (51)47 (54)57 (49)15 (75)79 (49)62 (58)
    F184 (47%)21 (49)40 (46)60 (51)5 (25)81 (51)45 (42)
Race/ethnicity.001 (.006)
    Black, non-Hispanic156 (40%)21 (49)24 (28)62 (53)7 (35)83 (52)31 (29)
    White, non-Hispanic118 (30%)10 (23)34 (39)21 (18)6 (30)31 (19)40 (37)
    Hispanic94 (24%)10 (23)21 (24)32 (27)6 (30)42 (26)27 (25)
Other21 (5%)2 (5)8 (9)2 (2)1 (5)4 (3)9 (8)
Maternal characteristics
    Mother's age, mean (SD)26 (6.6)25 (6.0)28 (6.2)23 (5.8)29 (7.2)24 (5.9)28 (6.4)<.001 (<.001)
    Antibiotics within 72 hours before delivery205 (53)22 (51)72 (84)39 (34)12 (60)61 (38)84 (79)<.001 (<.001)
    Antenatal steroids w/in 72 hours before delivery105 (27)17 (40)55 (63)NANANANA.01 (.04)c
Type of delivery.02 (.1)d
    Vaginal181 (47)18 (43)28 (33)63 (54)9 (47)81 (51)37 (35)
    C-section with labor, with ROM before C/S126 (33)15 (36)31 (36)39 (33)7 (37)54 (34)38 (36)
    C-section with labor, without ROM before C/S10 (3)0 (0)2 (2)4 (3)1 (5)4 (3)3 (3)
    C-section without labor, with ROM before C/S35 (9)4 (10)15 (17)4 (3)1 (5)8 (5)16 (15)
    C-section without labor, without ROM before C/S11 (3)2 (5)4 (5)1 (<1)0 (0)3 (2)4 (4)
    C-section, not specified22 (6)3 (7)6 (7)6 (5)1 (5)9 (6)7 (7)
Rupture of membranes ≥18 hours before delivery127 (33)19 (44)54 (62)17 (15)4 (21)36 (23)58 (55)<.001 (.008)
Spontaneous rupture of membranes with or without labor before 37 wk157 (40)30 (70)75 (86)NANANANA.03 (.04)e
Symptoms within 72 hours before delivery
    Maternal temperature ≥38.0°C102 (26)3 (7)27 (32)42 (36)6 (30)45 (28)33 (31).6 (.04)
    Uterine or abdominal tenderness56 (15)6 (14)26 (31)4 (3)0 (0)10 (6)26 (25)<.001 (.06)
    Foul smelling vaginal discharge or amniotic fluid37 (10)3 (7)15 (18)4 (3)0 (0)7 (4)15 (14).006 (.3)
    Maternal tachycardia (>100 beats per min)115 (30)14 (33)36 (42)30 (26)7 (35)44 (28)43 (41).03 (.08)
    Fetal tachycardia (>160 beats per min)120 (31)11 (26)34 (40)40 (34)7 (35)51 (32)41 (39).3 (.3)
    Chorioamnionitis documented in the medical record154 (40)13 (30)52 (61)39 (34)7 (35)52 (33)59 (56)<.001 (.02)
Placental pathology performed248 (65)33 (77)72 (85)49 (43)13 (65)82 (52)85 (81)<.001 (.03)
Histologic chorioamnionitisf190 (77)30 (91)63 (88)32 (65)8 (62)62 (76)71 (84).2 (.9)
  • Data for 3 infants with both GBS and E coli were included among all patient data but excluded from GBS and E coli columns.

  • a Among all patients (N = 389), information was missing for maternal antibiotics: 2 infants; delivery type: 4; timing of rupture of membranes: 8; spontaneous rupture of membranes <37 weeks: 1; symptoms within 72 hours before delivery: 4; chorioamnionitis in the medical record: 4; placental pathology: 5. Among infants with GBS or E coli (N = 267), information was missing for maternal antibiotics: 2 infants; delivery type: 3; symptoms within 72 hours before delivery: 3; chorioamnionitis in the medical record: 3; placental pathology: 4.

  • b P value for a difference between infants overall with GBS versus E coli by Fisher's exact test or the χ2 test for categorical variables, or the Kruskal-Wallis test (mother's age) and adjusting for GA (continuous) in a linear (mother's age) or logistic regression model.

  • c P value for a difference between infants with GBS versus E coli among preterm infants, unadjusted and adjusting for GA (continuous) in a logistic regression model. No term infants received antenatal steroids.

  • d P value for a difference between infants with GBS versus E coli in the proportion with c-section versus vaginal delivery.

  • e P value for a difference between infants with GBS versus E coli among preterm infants, unadjusted and adjusting for GA (continuous) in a logistic regression model.

  • f From among mothers for whom analysis of placental pathology was performed.