Unadjusted and Adjusted Odds of Depressed Fathers, Compared With Nondepressed Fathers, Reporting Positive and Negative Parenting Behaviors With Their 1-Year-Old Children

Parenting BehaviorUnadjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)a
Play gamesb1.08 (0.10–12.0)0.97 (0.09–11.1)
Sing songsb0.96 (0.36–2.56)0.98 (0.36–2.71)
Read storiesb0.49 (0.22–1.22)0.38 (0.15–0.98)
Spankc4.60 (1.57–13.5)3.92 (1.23–12.5)
  • a Controlled for paternal age, race and ethnicity, poverty level, educational level, employment status, marital status, child gender, and paternal substance abuse.

  • b Three or more days in a typical week.

  • c In the previous month.