TABLE 1

Primary Literature and Media Sources Selected for Review, According to Relevance

Source DescriptionNo. of ResultsMain TopicsSource Country
Primary literature81
    Systematic reviews0
    Review articles36Energy drinks are a growing problem; safety issues with energy drinks; stimulant adverse effects; caffeine dependence; caffeine and fluid-electrolyte balance; caffeine and exercise performance; caffeine and mental performance; caffeine and apnea of prematurity; caffeine and bronchopulmonary dysplasia; caffeine and coronary heart disease; herb adverse effects; adolescents with ADHD and misuse of medication; ADHD and substance use; cardiovascular effects of antidepressants in children and adolescents; caffeine consumption and eating disorders; caffeine and bone gain in children and adolescents; incidence of pediatric cardiomyopathy; frequency of myocardial injury in children; epidemiology of hypertrophic cardiomyopathyUS, Poland, United Kingdom, Germany, China
    Randomized controlled trials0
    Experimental studies16Cognitive and physiological effects of energy drinks; caffeine and exercise performance, thermoregulation, and fluid-electrolyte balance; energy drink effects on hemodynamic and electrocardiographic parameters in young adults; caffeine effects in children; gender differences and caffeinated beverages; taurine and cardiac parameters; energy drinks and platelet and endothelial function; eye-tracking in adolescents viewing advertisementsUnited States, United Kingdom, Germany
    Cohort studies2Caffeine and sleep patterns in children; caffeine exposure in children, adolescents, and young adultsUnited States
    Surveys4Consumption by college students; consumption of caffeinated beverages by adolescents; energy drinks and risk-taking behavior; survey of obstetrician/gynecologist caffeine knowledgeUnited States, Germany
    Case reports8Caffeine-induced psychosis; energy drinks and seizures; cardiac arrest after energy drink consumption; cardiac arrhythmias associated with energy drink consumption; caffeine fatalities; Red Bull and postural tachycardia; cardiomyopathy and pericarditis after methylphenidate; psychosis after energy drink consumptionUnited States
    Perspectives10Caution reduces long-term health risks; pediatric cardiology; cardiovascular adverse effects of stimulants; prevention of hypertension; stimulants and sudden death; cardiovascular disease and stimulants in children; sugary beverages and childhood obesity; fluid replacement and exerciseUnited States
    Basic science5
        Animal studies3Stimulants and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in rats; adenosine receptors in rats; structural changes in rat heart tissue after oral methylphenidateUnited States
        Human studies2Caffeine modulates gene expression; guarana and platelet functionUnited States
Government agency reports10FDA overview of dietary supplements; energy drinks/high-caffeine beverages; caffeinated beverages and obesity; dietary supplements and military personnel; German assessment of energy drinks; Canadian assessment of energy drinks; health risks of energy shots; Poison Control Center dataAustralia, Canada, European Germany, New Zealand, United States
Interest groups3Alcoholic energy drinks and youth; nutrition and energy drinksUnited States
Popular media27
    Newspaper articles14Overuse of energy drinks and health consequences; school bans on energy drinks; racial differences in caffeine metabolism; energy drink dangers for youth; restriction of drugs in youth; preparticipation screening and congenital heart defects; regulation of energy drinks; Hong Kong's ban of Red Bull; questioning dietary supplementsUnited States
    Web sites12Energy drink sales; French ban on Red Bull; Germany questions energy drink safety; a school's ban on energy drinks; marketing of energy drinks; high caffeine levels in energy drinks in Australia; Ireland's review of the safety of energy drinks; Dutch schools' ban on Red Bull; preparticipation sports physicalsHolland, United Kingdom, United States
    Books1History of energy drinks and health consequencesUnited States
Total121