TABLE 7

National and International Energy Drink Regulations

CountryBans on Energy DrinksRestrictionsProposed or Attempted Regulation
ArgentinaSenate has proposed banning energy drinks in nightclubs5
AustraliaRecently banned 5 energy drinks on the basis of a caffeine content of >320 mg/L116Classifying energy drinks as pharmaceutical products, which are regulated, has been proposed116
CanadaRequires warning labels, recommends a maximum daily consumption amount, and advises against mixing energy drinks with alcohol until further research has been conducted25
DenmarkProhibits energy drinks entirely5,25
European Food Safety AuthorityBeverages that contain >150 mg/L caffeine should be labeled “high caffeine content” and the exact amount present indicated on the label46
FranceBanned Red Bull but recently removed the ban after assessment by the European Food Safety Authority5
Germany11 of 16 German states banned Red Bull Cola because of trace amounts of cocaine111Stricter regulations on warning labels have been requested by the government32; the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment recommends that energy shots be banned because of the high risk of overdose38
IrelandIreland is reviewing energy drink safety; Ireland's food-safety board has recommended that energy drinks be labeled as unsuitable for children <16 y old and that a ban be placed on the promotion of Red Bull in sporting events and in combination with alcohol118,120
NetherlandsReviewed energy drink safety and declared no risk118,120
NorwayEnergy drinks can only be sold in pharmacies5,25
SwedenSales to children <15 y are banned; warning labels about consuming high caffeine after exercise and mixing energy drinks with alcohol are also present5
FinlandDrinks that contain >150 mg/L of caffeine must be labeled “high caffeine content” and also must be labeled “not recommended for children, pregnant women, or people sensitive to caffeine”46; energy drinks must also state the maximum amount to be used daily”46
TurkeyBan on all high-caffeine energy drinks5,118
United KingdomThe UK's Committee on Toxicity investigated Red Bull and determined that it was safe for the general public but that children <16 y old or people sensitive to caffeine should avoid drinks with high caffeine content5,31
UruguayProhibits energy drinks entirely121
United StatesThe FDA has listed caffeine as generally recognized as safe in concentrations of <200 mg/kg; in November 2009, the FDA announced plans to examine the safety of caffeinated alcoholic beverages46In 2008, Kentucky, Maine, and Michigan introduced legislation that would ban the sale of highly caffeinated drinks to children <18 y old, but the bills were defeated30; California is considering a bill to require special labels on alcoholic beverages to avoid confusion with nonalcoholic beverages43