Formula Fed | P | Breastfed (N = 101) | Comparison of 3 Dietary Groups, P^{a} | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Control (N = 100) | Nucleotide Supplemented (N = 100) | ||||

Completed study, % (n) | 85 (85) | 88 (88) | .4 | 96 (96) | .07 |

Age at final visit, wk | 20.5 ± 1.3 | 20.4 ± 1.4 | .6 | 20.3 ± 1.4 | .8 |

Age solids introduced, wk | 14.0 ± 2.3 | 13.6 ± 2.3 | .3 | 15.4 ± 1.8 | <.001^{b,c} |

Volume of formula intake, mL/d | |||||

Age 8 wk | 783 ± 195 | 827 ± 174 | .1 | — | — |

Age 12 wk | 847 ± 198 | 849 ± 199 | .9 | — | — |

Age 20 wk | 739 ± 180 | 753 ± 187 | .6 | — | — |

Anthropometric variables | |||||

Age 8 wk | |||||

Weight, kg | 5.0 ± 0.6 | 5.3 ± 0.8 | .04 | 5.1 ± 0.7 | .1 |

Weight, z score | −0.1 ± 1.0 | 0.2 ± 1.2 | .04 | 0.04 ± 1.0 | .1 |

Length, cm | 56.5 ± 2.4 | 56.8 ± 2.7 | .3 | 57.1 ± 2.3 | .3 |

Length, z score | −0.3 ± 1.0 | −0.1 ± 1.2 | .3 | 0.09 ± 0.9 | .1 |

OFC, cm | 38.8 ± 1.2 | 39.3 ± 1.4 | .009 | 39.1 ± 1.3 | .04^{d} |

OFC, z score | −0.06 ± 0.9 | 0.4 ± 1.0 | .006 | 0.3 ± 0.9 | .02^{e} |

BMI, kg/m^{2} | 15.8 ± 1.4 | 16.3 ± 1.9 | .06 | 15.7 ± 1.6 | .05 |

Age 16 wk | |||||

Weight, kg | 6.5 ± 0.8 | 6.8 ± 0.9 | .1 | 6.4 ± 0.9 | .03^{f} |

Weight z score | −0.05 ± 1.0 | 0.3 ± 1.2 | .06 | −0.2 ± 1.1 | .03^{g} |

Length, cm | 61.7 ± 2.4 | 61.9 ± 2.6 | .6 | 62.0 ± 2.3 | .9 |

Length, z score | −0.3 ± 1.0 | −0.2 ± 1.1 | .5 | −0.08 ± 0.9 | .6 |

OFC, cm | 41.3 ± 1.3 | 41.7 ± 1.5 | .04 | 41.4 ± 1.3 | .1 |

OFC, z score | −0.3 ± 1.0 | −0.04 ± 1.1 | .01 | −0.1 ± 0.9 | .07 |

BMI, kg/m^{2} | 17.2 ± 1.6 | 17.6 ± 1.7 | .06 | 16.6 ± 1.6 | .001^{h} |

Age 20 wk | |||||

Weight, kg | 7.3 ± 0.9 | 7.5 ± 1.0 | .2 | 7.1 ± 0.9 | .07 |

Weight, z score | −0.01 ± 1.1 | 0.2 ± 1.2 | .2 | −0.1 ± 1.1 | .1 |

Length, cm | 64.4 ± 2.5 | 64.6 ± 2.5 | .7 | 64.5 ± 2.2 | .9 |

Length, z score | −0.1 ± 1.0 | −0.04 ± 1.0 | .6 | −0.02 ± 0.9 | .9 |

OFC, cm | 42.4 ± 1.4 | 43.0 ± 1.5 | .03 | 42.5 ± 1.4 | .07 |

OFC, z score | −0.3 ± 1.0 | 0.06 ± 1.1 | .01 | −0.2 ± 1.1 | .07 |

BMI, kg/m^{2} | 17.4 ± 1.7 | 17.9 ± 1.7 | .1 | 17.2 ± 1.7 | .02^{i} |

Change in z score between randomization and 8 wk | |||||

Weight | 0.5 ± 0.7 | 0.7 ± 0.7 | .02 | — | — |

Length | 0.02 ± 1.0 | −0.003 ± 1.2 | .9 | — | — |

OFC | 0.2 ± 0.5 | 0.4 ± 0.6 | .01 | — | — |

Change in z score between 8 and 16 wk | |||||

Weight | 0.04 ± 0.5 | 0.03 ± 0.5 | .9 | −0.2 ± 0.5 | <.001^{j,k} |

Length | −0.04 ± 0.7 | −0.08 ± 0.8 | .7 | −0.2 ± 0.6 | .5 |

OFC | −0.2 ± 1.0 | −0.5 ± 1.0 | .05 | −0.4 ± 1.0 | .1 |

Change in z score between 16 and 20 wk | |||||

Weight | 0.04 ± 0.3 | −0.03 ± 0.3 | .1 | 0.05 ± 0.3 | .2 |

Length | 0.2 ± 0.7 | 0.1 ± 0.6 | .9 | 0.05 ± 0.5 | .5 |

OFC | −0.08 ± 1.2 | 0.2 ± 1.1 | .1 | −0.1 ± 1.2 | .1 |

Values are mean ± SD analyzed by using the Student's

*t*test and percent (*n*) analyzed by using the χ^{2}test. — indicates data not applicable.↵a The 3 dietary groups were compared by using analysis of variance and Bonferroni corrections for continuous data and χ

^{2}test for categorical data.↵Post-hoc analyses: breastfed versus control formula:

^{b}*P*< .001;^{j}*P*= .001; breastfed versus nucleotide-supplemented formula:^{c}*P*< .001;^{f}*P*= .03;^{g}*P*= .03;^{h}*P*= .001;^{i}*P*= .02;^{k}*P*= .001; control formula versus nucleotide-supplemented formula:^{d}*P*= .04;^{e}*P*= .03.