Sample Characteristics

nMean or %SDRange
    Education, y43112.22.02–21
    Marital status, % married43124.1
    Age at 14-y visit, y43043.49.827.0–79.6
    Primary caregiver, % mother43180.8
    Age at the 14-y visit, y43214.50.912.9–17.8
    Gender, % male43249.5
  • Reasons for ineligible teens at age 14: 15 families moved out of state; 2 children had closed adoptions; 6 teens were incarcerated; 3 teens died (1 of leukemia and 2 by homicide); and 1 child was missing and presumed to be a runaway. Additional losses to the teen follow up (n = 97) included 27 teens (5%) whose family could not be located, 39 teens (7%) whose parent refused, and 31 teens (6%) who, despite agreeing to participate, failed to attend any scheduled appointment.

  • a Based on the Hollingshead Four Factor Index of Social Status (A. B. Hollingshead, unpublished data, 1975).