Leading Device Categories and Injury Diagnoses for Pediatric MDAEs, According to Proportion of Hospitalizations

No. of HospitalizationsProportion of Hospitalizations, Estimate (95% CI)
    Ostomy appliances (infection or inflammation at device insertion site)10100
    Artificial heart valves (dyspnea after recent device placement)10100
    Kidney dialysis systems (respiratory distress/chest pain while using device)5685 (35–98)
    Ventriculoperitoneal shunts (hydrocephalus from or symptoms of device malfunction)334063 (55–71)
    Other cardiovascular devices (chest/groin pain after cardiac catheter use or cardiovascular stent placement)89952 (21–81)
    Pacemakers, internal defibrillators (dyspnea, weakness, syncope from device malfunction)7339 (31–47)
    Intravenous catheters (hemorrhage or infection at device insertion site, phlebitis)148038 (14–69)
    Respiratory devices (contusion from striking or being struck by oxygen tube, dyspnea from occluded/displaced tracheostomy tube)38424 (8–52)
    Intravenous/infusion pumps (contusion from being struck by device, no analgesia, hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia from device malfunction)39622 (9–45)
    Other gastroenterologic/urologic devices (severe pain with/without infection after stent placement)96516 (7–33)
    Dialysis blood access devices (hemorrhage or infection at device insertion site)2010 (1–45)
    Orthopedic fixation devices (pain with/without infection at pin/screw/wire/rod insertion site)11410 (5–17)
Injury diagnosis
    Poisoning175247 (17–80)
    Anoxia4023 (3–76)
    Fracture48016 (9–27)
    Other504416 (6–34)
    Hemorrhage12012 (4–29)
    Aspiration2111 (2–40)
    Infection10199 (4–21)
    Internal injury555 (1–15)
    Pain1424 (1–12)
    Dental injury201 (0–5)
    Laceration1351 (0–4)
    Puncture1021 (0–4)
    Ingestion101 (0–6)